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Very simply valacyclovir 500mg online antiviral vitamins supplements, children may be categorized as low buy discount valacyclovir 1000mg hiv infection rate condom, moderate purchase valacyclovir in india hiv infection rate malawi, or high caries risk according to the following criteria: • low risk⎯intact dentition, good oral hygiene, well-educated affluent family background, good dietary control, and use of fluoride regimens; • moderate risk⎯1-2 new lesions per year, poor oral hygiene, and non-optimum fluoride use; • high risk⎯three or more new lesions per year, poor oral hygiene and dietary control, significant medical history, immigrant status, poverty, low education, and poor uptake of fluoride regimens. It is also important to bear in mind that the risk of caries development also varies significantly for: • different age groups: children aged 1-2 years and 5-7 years are considered high risk age groups; • individual teeth: first primary molars and first permanent molars are high risk; • different tooth surfaces: interproximal primary molar surfaces and occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are high risk. These include: • smoking; • diabetes; • plaque accumulation⎯although this is not such a reliable indicator at an individual level; • family history (genetic factors). Hormonal changes around puberty, low vitamin C or calcium intake, socio-economic status, psychosocial factors, tooth position, and occlusal relationships may also influence periodontal health, but are not considered reliable risk indicators. However it has been suggested that: • intake of more than 6 carbonated drinks weekly is associated with moderate erosion risk; • intake of more than 14 carbonated drinks weekly is associated with high erosion risk. In addition, the following risk factors have been reported to have some association with erosion: • intake of more than two citrus fruits daily; • frequent sports participation; • eating disorders; • gastric reflux, rumination. However, there are some recognized trauma risk factors that warrant consideration and appropriate prevention where possible: • increased overjet: children with an overjet of >9 mm are twice as likely to sustain dental trauma; • contact sports: active participation in sports, such as rugby, hockey, and martial arts, carries an increased risk of sustaining orofacial trauma; • previous dental trauma: there is a significant risk of sustaining further trauma! First, it is clearly necessary to ensure that the child reaches adulthood with the optimum achievable dental health. Second, it is essential that the child both learns to trust the dental team and develops a positive attitude towards dental treatment. Thus, the dentist may be required to exercise a degree of compromise which those more used to treating adults may find unfamiliar and even a little uncomfortable. However, it is important to accept that there will be no winners if, at the outset, a treatment plan is unrealistic or insufficiently flexible to allow modification, should this become necessary, as treatment progresses. However, basic principles pervade all treatment plans and these are set out in Fig. However it is important that any treatment that is provided sits well in the context of a holistic treatment plan and does not jeopardize its completion. In most cases, therefore, pain relief should be provided without recourse to extraction. Procedures such as fluoride varnish applications or disclosing are good confidence-building steps. Key Point Preventive advice, whether this is in relation to diet, oral hygiene, fluoride supplementation, or even the prevention of dental trauma, should be realistic and specifically tailored to the individual child and parent. The delivery of preventive advice and interventions should not be restricted to the commencement of treatment. Rather, prevention should be reinforced as treatment progresses, modifications being incorporated should these become necessary. It demands the creation of a partnership in which both the child and the parent are key players, though the relative role and prominence of each will differ with the age of the child. In the case of young children, parents are (or, at least, should be) responsible for food choices and oral hygiene, though the latter responsibility is not infrequently abdicated before the child has sufficient manual dexterity to brush adequately alone. As the child approaches the teenage years (and particularly when he or she enters secondary schooling), parental control inevitably decreases. Any discussion of the proposed treatment plan should, therefore, include an agreement as to what is required of the child and/or parent as well as what will be offered by various members of the dental team (including professionals complementary to dentistry). In this process, no attempt is made to render the cavities caries free; rather, minimal tissue is removed without local anaesthesia, allowing placement of an appropriate temporary dressing. The inclusion of such a phase in a holistic treatment plan reduces the overall bacterial load and slows caries progression, renders the child less likely to present with pain and sepsis, and buys time for the implementation of preventive measures and for the child to be acclimatised to treatment. However, one word of caution is offered: it is essential that the parent understands the purpose of stabilization and that what have been provided are not permanent restorations. Otherwise, it is possible that they will perceive that treatment is failing to progress. For example, in a scenario in which a child has not responded to acclimatization and has either refused stabilization or accepted this only with extreme difficulty, the dentist may be entirely justified in considering extractions. This will allow the child and his or her family to enjoy a period where no active treatment is required and in which prevention can be established (always provided, of course, they return for continuing care). The following are general rules of thumb: • small, simple restorations should be completed first; • maxillary teeth should be treated before mandibular ones (since it is usually easier to administer local anaesthesia in the upper jaw); • posterior teeth should be treated before anteriors (this usually ensures that the patient returns for treatment); • quadrant dentistry should be practised wherever possible (this reduces the number of visits to a minimum) but only if the time in chair is not excessive for a very young patient; • endodontic treatment should follow completion of simple restorative treatment; • extractions should be the last items of operative care (at this stage, patient co- operation can more reliably be assured) unless the patient presents with an acute problem mid-treatment. The determination of a recall schedule tailored to the needs of the individual child is an essential part of the treatment-planning process. It is generally accepted that children should receive a dental assessment more frequently than adults since • there is evidence that the rate of progression of dental caries can be more rapid in children than in adults; • the rate of progression of caries and erosive tooth wear is faster in primary than in permanent teeth; • periodic assessment of orofacial growth and the developing occlusion is required. In the latter context, there is considerable merit in ensuring that recall examinations coincide with particular milestones in dental development, for example, around 6, 9, and 12 years. Generally speaking, recall intervals of no more than 12 months offer the dentist the opportunity to deliver and reinforce preventive advice during the crucial period when a child is establishing the basis for their future dental health. This requires an assessment of disease levels as well as risk of/from dental disease. It is sufficient to emphasize here that, in this context, a comprehensive approach must be taken. Providing treatment under general anaesthesia for a child who has been shown to be unable to cope with operative dental care under local anaesthesia (with or without the support of conscious sedation) will do absolutely nothing to improve his or her future co-operation. Key Point The practice of extracting only the most grossly carious or symptomatic teeth (and assuming that other carious teeth can be restored under local anaesthetic at a later stage) predisposes to a high rate of repeat general anaesthesia and should be discouraged. The orthodontic implications of any proposed treatment should always be considered. This is particularly so when the loss of one or more permanent units is to be included in the treatment plan. In such cases, the latter should ideally be drawn up in consultation with a specialist in orthodontics. Treatment under general anaesthesia, irrespective of whether this includes restorative treatment or is limited to extractions, should be followed with an appropriate preventive programme. Failure to provide this almost inevitably leads to the child undergoing further treatment (usually extractions) under general anaesthesia. In creating this, appropriate specialist input to treatment planning should be sought where indicated. At the simplest level, an orthodontic opinion should be obtained before committing a child to multiple visits to restore first permanent molars of poor prognosis. However, it is in the treatment planning of complex cases (such as those presenting with generalized defects of enamel or dentine formation, hypodontia, or clefts of lip and palate) that interdisciplinary specialist input is essential. For example, such input may result in • the retention of anterior roots to maintain alveolar bone in preparation for future implants; • the use of preformed metal crowns to maintain clinical crown height in preparation for definitive crowns; • the use of direct/laboratory-formed composite veneers in preparation for porcelain veneers when growth (and any orthodontic treatment) is complete. Key Point The one over-riding consideration is this: management in early adulthood should never be compromised by inappropriate treatment at a young age. Meticulous history-taking, clinical examination, and risk assessment contribute to the decision-making process, but one should never lose sight of what is realistic and practical for the child in the context of his or her environment. The need for good management of anxiety and pain in paediatric dentistry is paramount.
Therefore order valacyclovir 500 mg without prescription hiv infection rate in costa rica, the agency needs to look at the data on which these tests are developed purchase genuine valacyclovir online hiv infection and pregnancy. Some might have to come off the market until the developer can provide enough data for approval buy valacyclovir on line amex hiv infection symptoms prevention facts testing treatment. Government agencies have been criticized for not doing more to clamp down on questionable genetic tests that are being sold directly to consumers. Three components are needed to ensure the safety and quality of genetic tests: (1) the laboratories that conduct the tests must have quality control and personnel stan- dards in place to prevent mistakes; (2) the tests themselves must be valid and reli- able – i. Once these mechanisms are in place, uses and outcomes also must be evaluated over time in order to pinpoint any problems that may require attention, particularly as new tests enter wider use. However, the requirement could also discourage the development of diagnostics by raising the costs of introducing them. The requirement could discourage gradual improvements of tests because each change in a test might require a new regulatory submission. The process for reviewing such tests is “contingent on the intended use of the device” therefore, design of studies and data sets required will be inﬂuenced Universal Free E-Book Store 674 22 Regulatory Aspects of Personalized Medicine by a particular use. In this instance, a test for the prognosis of breast cancer would require different data than a test used to diagnose the disease. The ultimate goal of the project is to guide the choice of targeted therapy so that patients receive the most effective treatments. The development of therapeutic products that depend on the use of a diagnostic test to meet their labeled safety and effectiveness claims has become more common. For example, if a therapeutic product is only safe and effective in a patient subpopulation identi- ﬁed by a diagnostic test, the Indications and Usage section of the labeling must deﬁne the patient subpopulation. Likewise, if a diagnostic test is essential for moni- toring beneﬁcial or adverse effects, the Warnings and Precaution section must iden- tify the type of test. When appropriate, the labeling can name a class of therapeu- tic products, rather than speciﬁc products within the class. In addition, it supports the evaluation of qualitative results for a speciﬁc clinical analyte, including: • Preparation of control transcripts • Design of primers and amplicons • Quality control • Use in ﬁnal experimental or clinical test application • Analysis and interpretation of data obtained This document is intended to help ensure comparable within-platform assay per- formance to enable comparisons of gene expression results. The protocols will enable research and clinical laboratories, regulatory agencies, accrediting agencies, reference laboratories, as well as test, microarray, and reagent manufacturers to assess the performance of these expression assays. Regulation of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Various states are beginning to tackle the problem of uncontrolled personal genetic services. In 2008, New York State, warned 23 companies that they must have per- mits to offer their services to New Yorkers. New York’s warning letter was a blow not only to new companies such as Navigenics (now acquired by Life Technologies) and 23andMe that entered into the ﬁeld of consumer genomics in 2007, but also to Universal Free E-Book Store Regulation of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing 677 technology suppliers Affymetrix and Illumina, which make the tools the testing companies use. In 2008, Department of Health of the State of California, in an effort to prevent consumer genetic testing companies from offering their services to the state’s residents, sent letters to 13 ﬁrms saying they are violating state law. One offense that genetic testing companies could commit would be to sell their products to California citizens over the Internet without the request or counsel of a physician. Another problem is that the companies’ tests have not been validated for accuracy or for clinical utility, which is required under California law. The Genetic Alliance, a nonproﬁt health advo- cacy organization committed to transforming health through genetics, has suggested that informed decisions must be made on the basis of analytic and clinical validity, clinical utility, and individual usefulness, as well as an understanding of oversight, regulation, and reimbursement (Zonno and Terry 2009). Accurate, reliable, and vali- dated information must be available to individuals and providers as they make deci- sions about testing and the information gained through the testing process. Education regarding basic genetics and the testing process; professional society recommendations and guidelines, infor- mation for patients and providers on risk or diagnosis; and referral networks for spe- cialists, researchers, and disease-speciﬁc organizations could all be built into or linked with the registry. Such a system would be transparent and coordinated with all stake- holders and agencies to balances safety, innovation, ethical and social issues. Not doing so runs the risk of dangerously reassur- ing some and needlessly aggravating the already worried. In 2010, Navigenics (acquired by Life Technologies in 2012) received a license to offer its personal genomics services to residents of New York State. There are three important issues that consumer genomic testing needs to address before it can become part of medical care: • Analytic validity. A small error rate in sample can result in hundreds of misclas- siﬁed variants for any individual patient. Many complex diseases are caused by multiple gene variants, and interactions between variants and environmental factors, which are not known yet. Few observational studies and almost no clinical trials demon- strate the risks and beneﬁts associated with screening for individual gene variants. Universal Free E-Book Store 678 22 Regulatory Aspects of Personalized Medicine Ensuring that the public has information adequate to making informed choices about genetic testing is a prerequisite to realizing the public health beneﬁts that have been promised from genetic medicine. The issues being studied relate particularly to the ways in which offering genotyping tests and services directly to customers by com- panies such as Decode Genetics, and 23andMe, differs from genetic testing offered by healthcare providers. The center also will conduct some legal analysis that supports coordinated efforts to protect consumers. Although they did not advocate an unregulated genomics market, the authors urged regulators to wait until information is available on the effects of such tests before introducing regulation. For instance, the team noted that personal genomics is pushing the individualization of responsibility for health one step further, without necessarily providing clear information about how genetics ties into health and individual choices. Effective responses to this situation require clariﬁcation of the novel issues created by the convergence of information about health, consumer and lifestyle choices, and gene- alogy; novel relationships between geneticists, patients, consumers and corporate executives; and the continued intensiﬁcation of collaboration, on both the research and the patient/consumer sides. These motives might be leveraged by health care providers to promote positive health outcomes. Challenges faced by the introduction of personalized medicine include gaps in the oversight of genetic testing (including regulation of companies providing test interpretation services), ensuring that realistic claims are made in promotional materials for genetic testing, determining the appropriate role of new genomic tech- nologies in patient care, ensuring the privacy of patients’ genomic data, and improv- ing insurance coverage and reimbursement for genetic services (Evans et al. To ensure that rapidly evolving genomic technologies are responsibly utilized and that their promise is not oversold to the public, it will be important to advocate for rigorous evaluations of the clinical validity and utility of genomic tests, as well as for adequate regulation that simultaneously preserves innovation. Clinicians, researchers, academics, the commercial sector, and the government must work together for realization of the remarkable potential of personalized medicine. Clinical utility of a genetic test shall be an essential criterion for deciding to offer this test to a person or a group of persons. Laboratories providing genetic tests should comply with accepted quality stan- dards, including those regarding laboratory personnel qualiﬁcations. Information about the purpose and appropriateness of testing should be given before the test is done. Genetic counseling appropriate to the type of test and disease should be offered; and for some tests psychosocial evaluation and follow-up should be available. Privacy and conﬁdentiality of sensitive genetic information should be secured and the data safely guarded. Special measures should be taken to avoid inappropriate testing of minors and other legally incapacitated persons. All claims regarding genetic tests should be transparent; advertisement should be unbiased and marketing of genetic tests should be fair.
Acquired aplastic anemia may be due to drugs or chemicals (ex- pected toxicity or idiosyncratic effects) valacyclovir 500 mg visa hiv infection 3 years, viral infections purchase 500 mg valacyclovir visa hiv infection rate in us, immune diseases valacyclovir 1000mg mastercard hiv infection cycle video, paroxysmal noc- turnal hemoglobinuria, pregnancy, or idiopathic causes. Aplastic anemia from idiosyncratic drug reactions (including those listed as well others including as quinacrine, phenytoin, sul- fonamides, cimetidine) are uncommon but may be encountered given the wide usage of some of these agents. In these cases there is usually not a dose-dependent response; the reac- tion is idiosyncratic. Seronegative hepatitis is a cause of aplastic anemia, particularly in young men who recovered from an episode of liver inﬂammation 1–2 months prior. In the absence of drugs or toxins that cause bone marrow suppression, it is most likely that he has immune-mediated injury. Transfusion should be avoided unless emergently needed to prevent the development of alloantibodies. Immunosuppression with antithy- mocyte globulin and cyclosporine is a therapy with proven efﬁcacy for this autoimmune disease with a response rate of up to 70%. Relapses are common and myelodysplastic syn- drome or leukemia may occur in approximately 15% of treated patients. Immunosuppres- sion is the treatment of choice for patients without suitable bone marrow transplant donors. Bone marrow transplantation is the best current therapy for young patients with matched sibling donors. Allogeneic bone marrow transplants from matched siblings result in long term survival in >80% of patients, with better results in children than adults. Adenocarcinomas are strongly associated with thrombosis (Trousseau’s syndrome) and may cause ascites, but hemolysis without mi- croangiopathic hemolytic anemia makes this less likely. Characteristic ﬁndings include a history of exposure to sandﬂies at night or darkening of the skin on physical examination. Miliary tuberculosis is on the differential but would be unlikely with a normal chest radiograph. Cirrhosis of the liver may present this way although the persis- tent fevers would be uncharacteristic. Ingestion of warfarin may also cause this clinical scenario but is less likely given the inheritance pattern. Congenital or nutritional deﬁciencies of these factors will be corrected in the laboratory by the addition of serum from a normal subject. The presence of a spe- ciﬁc antibody to a coagulation factor is termed an acquired inhibitor. Patients with acquired inhibitors are typically older adults (median age 60) with pregnancy or post-partum states being less common. The most common underlying dis- eases are autoimmune diseases, malignancies (lymphoma, prostate cancer), and derma- tologic diseases. Developing the coagulation disorder later in life is more suggestive of an acquired inhibitor if there is no antecedent history of coagulopa- thy. A tobacco history and laboratory evidence of chronic illness (anemia, hypoalbuminemia) in this scenario raise the suspicion of an underlying malignancy. It has a prevalence in the general population of 1:5000 in contrast to Hemophilia B that has a prevalence of 1:30,000. The disease phe- notype correlates with the amount of residual Factor activity and can be classiﬁed as se- vere (<1% activity), moderate (1–5% activity) or mild (6–30% activity). Hemophiliacs have a normal bleeding time, platelet count, thrombin time and prothrombin time. This and the presence of ascites raise the possibility of liver disease and cirrhosis. It is estimated in 2006 that >80% of hemophilia patients >20 years old are infected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C is the major cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of death in patients exposed to older factor concentrates. Patients develop cirrhosis and the complications including as- cites and variceal bleeding. Hepatitis B was not transmitted in signiﬁcant numbers to patients with hemophilia. Diverticular dis- ease or peptic ulcer disease would not explain the prolonged prothrombin time. In contrast, these tests should not ﬂuctuate as much in patients with severe liver disease. This step may be not necessary however in those individ- uals with hemoglobin greater than 20 g/dL. Once absolute erythrocytosis has been deter- mined by measurement of red cell mass and plasma volume, the cause of erythrocytosis must be determined. If there is not an obvious cause of the erythrocytosis, an erythropoi- etin level should be checked. An elevated erythropoietin level suggests hypoxia or auton- omous production of erythropoietin as the cause of erythrocytosis. When symptoms are present, the most common complaints are related to hyperviscosity of the blood and include vertigo, headache, tinnitus, and transient ischemic attacks. Molluscum contagiosum gency room with a transient ischemic attack characterized B. She calls your ofﬁce 2 weeks later slightly distressed man with disheveled appearance. Cardiac examination reveals an early diastolic murmur over the left 3d intercostal space. Write her a prescription for oseltamivir and call her right hand and on the fourth ﬁnger of his left hand that are in 24 h to ensure improvement. A 56-year-old man with a history of hypertension cells coated with coccobacillary organisms. Which of the and cigarette smoking is admitted to the intensive care following therapies is indicated? Minority women aged 13–19 from the southeastern mens is recommended as ﬁrst-line treatment for her United States account for a growing proportion of malarial infection? Which of the following is true years ago and is maintained on prednisone, 5 mg, and cy- regarding enteroviruses as a cause of aseptic meningitis? A 38-year-old female pigeon keeper who has no sig- trichomonal parasites are identiﬁed. Which of the follow- niﬁcant past medical history, is taking no medications, has ing statements regarding trichomoniasis is true? When given as a ﬁrst-line agent for invasive As- her shoulder presents with fever and severe low back pain. Bilirubin, lactose dehydrogenase, as well as gram-negative coverage and haptoglobin are all within normal limits.
In some cases purchase discount valacyclovir line hiv infection symptoms within 24 hours, the phenotype expressed by a gene provides a more accurate risk assessment buy 1000 mg valacyclovir free shipping hiv infection in toddlers. These results support the beneﬁt of a “level crossing” approach that includes intervening phenotypes in the study of complexly inherited disease cheap valacyclovir american express hiv infection potential long term effects. Affymetrix provides the densest coverage at the whole-genome level with its GeneChip Human Mapping 500 K Array Set and Affymetrix GeneChip® Scanner 3000 MegAllele, and enables the highest level of multiplexing that is commercially available as well as increase throughput with low capital investment. Inter-individual variability in drug response, ranging from lack of efﬁcacy to life-threatening adverse reactions is inﬂuenced by variation in genes that control the absorption, distribution, metabo- lism and excretion of drugs. Problems with the methods include sequencing biases that lead certain regions of the genome to be over- or under- sampled, lowering their resolution and ability to accurately identify the exact breakpoints of the variants. Most of the calls (77 %) coincide with previously known variants within the Database of Genomic Variants, while 81 % of deletion copy number variants previously known for this individual coincide with one of our loss calls. Moreover, among these events, the authors observed cases with allele distribution strongly deviating from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium, possibly implying selection on certain complex loci. A conventional ﬁne-mapping effort starts by sequencing dozens of randomly selected samples at susceptibility loci to discover candidate variants, which are then placed on custom arrays and algorithms are used to ﬁnd the causal variants. This reﬁned technique may identify indi- viduals more likely to have mutations in causal genes. This approach will facilitate personalized medicine, in which treatment will be tailored to an individual’s genetic proﬁle. Identifying causal variants in disease genes provides an opportunity to develop drugs to rectify the biological consequences of these mutated genes. Application of Proteomics in Molecular Diagnosis Discovery of the genetic sequence encoding a protein by nucleic acid technologies is not sufﬁcient to predict the size or biological nature of a protein. To address this area, several protein- based analysis technologies have been developed. Proteomics investigations endeavor to provide a global understanding of gene product synthesis rate, degradation rate, functional competence, posttranslational modiﬁcation, subcellular distribution and physical interactions with other cell com- ponents. Usual sequence of events in proteomics is as follows: samples → protein separation → gel analysis → differential protein expression → sequence analysis. Bioinformatic systems integrate clinical data, robotics and protein identiﬁcation into an automated process. Proteomic technologies are considered to be a distinct group within molecular diagnostics and should not be confused with immunoassays although some pro- teomic technologies are antibody-based. Proteomics will facilitate mass screening at the protein level to supplement the genetic screening and ﬁll a gap in molecular medicine. Proteomic data can provide clinical biomarkers for monitoring patient progress (see Chap. This approach is combined with database search algorithms to sequence and characterize individual proteins. Proteins are separated in the ﬁrst dimension on the basis of their charge and in the second dimen- sion on the basis of their molecular mass. In high-format mode, it can produce gels con- taining up to 10,000 distinct proteins and peptide spots. The major problem with this technique is that most of the spots cannot be sequenced as they are beyond the capacity of current high-sensitivity sequencers. By reference to the databases, individual proteins on the map can be identiﬁed as the product of genes that have been sequenced. While comparing different samples, controlling the position of the protein spots can be critical and is completely dependent upon the ﬁdelity of the isoelectric focus- ing ﬁrst dimension and the molecular weight separating gel slab of the second dimension. Challenges faced when utilizing this technology are co-migration of proteins, systematic exclusion of highly hydro- phobic molecules, and problems with detecting very acidic, very basic, very small, very large, or low abundance proteins. To meet the demands of protein separation, companies are developing new technologies that appear to be inexpensive and reli- able, generate high-resolution protein separation and yield good visual detection of subtle differences. A mass spectrom- eter consists of three essential parts: (1) an ionization source with conversion of molecules into gas-phase ions; (2) a mass analyzer to separate individual mass to charge rations (m/z); and (3) an ion detector. Universal Free E-Book Store Application of Proteomics in Molecular Diagnosis 75 Biochip / Microfluidics High Performance Liquid 2D Electrophoresis Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy Bioinformatics Protein Identification © Jain PharmaBiotech Fig. Proteins in the blot are digested with a proteolytic enzyme, which has well-deﬁned cleavage speciﬁcity. The resulting peptide masses are then compared with theoretical masses calculated from amino-acid sequence databases. For completely sequenced genomes, 90 % of the proteins can be identiﬁed rapidly and automatically by searching databases with lists of peptide masses obtained by 2D gel technique and matrix-assisted laser description ionization. This study established that mass spectrometry provides the required throughput, the certainty of identiﬁcation, and the general applicability to serve as the method of choice to con- nect genome and proteome. Comparison of Proteomic and Genomic Approaches in Personalized Medicine Although proteomic and genomic approaches can be complementary, there are some similarities and differences that are shown in Table 2. Each of these steps in gene expression is subject to precise cellular controls that collectively allow the cell to respond to changing needs. The temporal, developmental, typographical, histological and physiological patterns in which a gene is expressed provide clues to its biological role. All functions of cells, tissues and organs are controlled by dif- ferential gene expression. Knowledge of which genes are expressed in healthy and diseased tissues would allow us to identify both the protein required for normal function and the abnormalities causing disease. This information will help in the development of new diagnostic tests for various illnesses as well as new drugs to alter the activity of the affected genes or proteins. Gene expression proﬁling is rel- evant to development of personalized medicine and some of the technologies used will be described brieﬂy. The technology has advanced to such a point that researchers now demand microarrays that are cost-effective and have ﬂexibility and quality assurance. Important applications are in drug discovery, a ﬁeld that is now ﬂooded with poten- tial targets. Microarrays will play an essential role in overcoming this obstacle in both target identiﬁcation and in the long road of drug discovery and development. Two important therapeutic areas for gene expression proﬁling using microarrays are cancer and neurological disorders. Analysis of Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis of single-cell gene expression promises a more precise understanding of human disease pathogenesis and has important diagnostic applications. Single cell isolation methods include ﬂow cytometry cell sorting and laser capture microdis- section. Molecular signatures of some diseases can best be discerned by analysis of cell subpopulations. This will facilitate the developed of personalized medicine based on the molecular signatures of the diseased cell population. By combining advances in computational ﬂuorescence microscopy with multiplex probe design, expression of many genes can be visualized simultaneously inside single cells with high spatial and temporal resolution. Splicing is the crucial and tightly regulated step between gene transcription and protein translation.
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