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For example purchase caverta with visa impotence with diabetes, a tone measuring 600 hertz will be transduced into 600 nerve impulses a second safe 50mg caverta erectile dysfunction drugs in canada. This theory has a problem with high-pitched sounds order 50mg caverta with mastercard young living oils erectile dysfunction, however, because the neurons cannot fire fast enough. To reach the necessary speed, the neurons work together in a sort of volley system in which different neurons fire in sequence, allowing us to detect sounds up to about 4,000 hertz. The cochlea relays information about the specific area, or place, in the cochlea that is most activated by the incoming sound. The place theory of hearing proposes that different areas of the cochlea respond to different frequencies. Higher tones excite areas closest to the opening of the cochlea (near the oval window). Pitch is therefore determined in part by the area of the cochlea firing the most frequently. Just as having two eyes in slightly different positions allows us to perceive depth, so the fact that the ears are placed on either side of the head enables us to benefit from stereophonic, or three- dimensional, hearing. If a sound occurs on your left side, the left ear will receive the sound slightly sooner than the right ear, and the sound it receives will be more intense, allowing you to quickly determine the location of the sound. Although the distance between our two ears is only about 6 inches, and sound waves travel at 750 miles an hour, the time and intensity differences  are easily detected (Middlebrooks & Green, 1991). When a sound is equidistant from both ears, such as when it is directly in front, behind, beneath or overhead, we have more difficulty pinpointing its location. It is for this reason that dogs (and people, too) tend to cock their heads when trying to pinpoint a sound, so that the ears receive slightly different signals. Hearing Loss More than 31 million Americans suffer from some kind of hearing impairment (Kochkin,  2005). Conductive hearing loss is caused by physical damage to the ear (such as to the eardrums or ossicles) that reduce the ability of the ear to transfer vibrations from the outer ear to the inner ear. Sensorineural hearing loss, which is caused by damage to the cilia or to the  auditory nerve, is less common overall but frequently occurs with age (Tennesen, 2007). The cilia are extremely fragile, and by the time we are 65 years old, we will have lost 40% of them,  particularly those that respond to high-pitched sounds (Chisolm, Willott, & Lister, 2003). Prolonged exposure to loud sounds will eventually create sensorineural hearing loss as the cilia are damaged by the noise. People who constantly operate noisy machinery without using Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Sounds that are 85 decibels or more can cause damage to your hearing, particularly if you are exposed to them repeatedly. Sounds of more than 130 decibels are dangerous even if you are exposed to them infrequently. People who experience tinnitus (a ringing or a buzzing sensation) after being exposed to loud sounds have very likely experienced some damage to their cilia. Taking precautions when being exposed to loud sound is important, as cilia do not grow back. While conductive hearing loss can often be improved through hearing aids that amplify the sound, they are of little help to sensorineural hearing loss. A cochlear implant is a device made up of a series of electrodes that are placed inside the cochlea. The device serves to bypass the hair cells by stimulating the auditory nerve cells directly. The latest implants utilize place theory, enabling different spots on the implant to respond to different levels of pitch. The cochlear implant can help children hear who would normally be deaf, and if the device is implanted early enough, these children can frequently learn to speak, often as well as normal children do (Dettman, Pinder, Briggs, Dowell,  & Leigh, 2007; Dorman & Wilson, 2004). The resulting vibrations are relayed by the three ossicles, causing the oval window covering the cochlea to vibrate. The vibrations are detected by the cilia (hair cells) and sent via the auditory nerve to the auditory cortex. The place theory of hearing suggests that we hear different pitches because different areas of the cochlea respond to higher and lower pitches. Sensorineural hearing loss, caused by damage to the hair cells or auditory nerves in the inner ear, may be produced by prolonged exposure to sounds of more than 85 decibels. Given what you have learned about hearing in this chapter, are you engaging in any activities that might cause long- term hearing loss? If so, how might you change your behavior to reduce the likelihood of suffering damage? The aging auditory system: Anatomic and physiologic changes and implications for rehabilitation. Communication development in children who receive the cochlear implant younger than 12 months: Risk versus benefits. Summarize how the senses of taste and olfaction transduce stimuli into perceptions. Although vision and hearing are by far the most important, human sensation is rounded out by four other senses, each of which provides an essential avenue to a better understanding of and response to the world around us. These other senses are touch, taste, smell, and our sense of body position and movement (proprioception). Tasting Taste is important not only because it allows us to enjoy the food we eat, but even more crucial, because it leads us toward foods that provide energy (sugar, for instance) and away from foods that could be harmful. Many children are picky eaters for a reason—they are biologically predisposed to be very careful about what they eat. Together with the sense of smell, taste helps us maintain appetite, assess potential dangers (such as the odor of a gas leak or a burning house), and avoid eating poisonous or spoiled food. The tongue detects six different taste sensations, known respectively as sweet, salty, sour, bitter, piquancy (spicy), and umami (savory). Our tongues are covered with taste buds, which are designed to sense chemicals in the mouth. Most taste buds are located in the top outer edges of the tongue, but there are also receptors at the back of the tongue as well as on the walls of the mouth and at the back of the throat. As we chew food, it dissolves and enters the taste buds, triggering nerve impulses that are transmitted to the  brain (Northcutt, 2004). Human tongues are covered with 2,000 to 10,000 taste buds, and each bud contains between 50 and 100 taste receptor cells. Taste buds are activated very quickly; a salty or sweet taste that touches a taste bud for even one tenth of a second will trigger a neural  impulse (Kelling & Halpern, 1983). On average, taste buds live for about 5 days, after which Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor.
Fortunately generic 100mg caverta with visa erectile dysfunction age 32, consistent application of rigorous infection control precautions and environmental cleaning practices can prevent the transmission of Acinetobacter discount 100mg caverta with mastercard erectile dysfunction pump demonstration. These infections were first encountered in healthcare settings in the 1980s discount caverta 50mg without prescription erectile dysfunction 60, and the rate of infections has continued to rise. The measures included strict attention to hand hygiene, enhanced surveillance for infections, effective use of isolation rooms, and behavior modification techniques for healthcare workers to emphasize the importance of the new procedures. Most of these are skin infections, but severe and sometimes fatal cases of necrotizing pneumonia continue to be reported among otherwise healthy people in the community with no links to the healthcare system. However, antibiotics can disrupt this balance by killing off healthy intestinal bacteria, whereas C. Since 2000, the United States has seen a rapid increase in the number and severity of C. Other studies have shown that daily cleaning of hospital rooms will also significantly decrease C. Gonorrhea Over time, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) has become resistant to every antibiotic that has been used to treat it. Over the past decade, fluoroquinolone-resistant gonorrhea spread from the Far East and Western Pacific to the United States, leaving only one 204 class of antibiotics still recommended for effective gonorrhea treatment, the cephalosporins. Strains with decreased susceptibilities to cephalosporins identified in laboratory testing and some treatment failures following therapy with oral cephalosporins have been reported from several countries in Asia. Patients with complicated or severe infections are treated with fluoroquinolones or cephalosporins, and of these two drug classes, only cephalosporins are approved for treatment of children with these infections. In many cases, the same types of bacteria and genetic mechanisms of resistance are found in both human and animal sources. Studies have shown that use of cephalosporins in food animals can select for antibiotic resistant bacteria, and, in some cases, specific uses of this class of drugs in food animals are associated with higher rates of resistance among human Salmonella infections. In order to successfully manage resistance, it is important to understand antibiotic resistant human infections in the context of specific antibiotic use patterns, including use patterns in food animals. Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of culture-confirmed foodborne bacterial disease in humans in the United States, and consumption of poultry has been shown to be an important risk factor for Campylobacter infection. Fluoroquinolones and macrolides are the drug classes of choice for treating Campylobacter infections. Following the approval of fluoroquinolones for use in poultry, rate of resistance to this class of drugs among human Campylobacter isolates rose sharply, to more than 20 percent. Studies are also underway to understand domestic and foreign travel-associated sources of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter. Pneumococcal Infections Vaccination is effective in preventing pneumococcal infections. Since the vaccine was introduced into the routine childhood immunization program in the United States, penicillin-resistant pneumococcal 206 infections have declined by 35 percent. Not only has the vaccine been shown to prevent antibioticresistant infections, it has been shown to reduce the need for prescribing antibiotics for children with pneumococcal infection in the first place. It is estimated that since 2001, 170,000 severe pneumococcal infections and 10,000 deaths have been prevented by vaccine use and that the vaccine is highly cost-effective, saving an estimated $310 million in direct medical costs each year. In a sense, the vaccine has provided selective pressure benefiting strains not covered by the vaccine. In February of this year, a new version of the vaccine, which includes protection against strain 19A, was approved for use. Improving Antibiotic Use Antibiotic use often provides lifesaving therapy to those who have a serious bacterial infection. Antibiotic use also provides the selective pressure for new resistance to develop. In order to minimize the selective pressure of antibiotics, it is important to make sure that when antibiotics are used, they are used appropriately. The Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work program is a comprehensive and multi-faceted public health effort to help reduce the rise of antibiotic resistance. Partnerships with public and private health care providers, pharmacists, a variety of retail outlets, and the media result in broad distribution of the campaign’s multi- cultural/multi-lingual health education materials for the public and health care providers. Get Smart targets five respiratory conditions that account for most of office-based antibiotic prescribing, including: otitis media, sinusitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and the common cold. Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey confirm the campaign’s impact on reducing antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections among both children and adults. There has been a 20 percent decrease in prescribing for upper respiratory infections (In 1997 the prescription rate for otitis media in children less than 5 years of age was 69 prescriptions per 100 children compared to 47. The Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work campaign contributed to surpassing the Healthy People 2010 target goal to reduce the number of antibiotics prescribed for ear infections in children under age 5. Following the success of this campaign, two new Get Smart campaigns have been launched: Get Smart in Healthcare Settings and Get Smart on the Farm. Get Smart in Healthcare Settings will focus on improving antibiotic use for the in-patient population. One of the initial activities will be to launch a website that will provide healthcare providers with materials to design, implement, and evaluate antibiotic stewardship interventions locally. These materials will include best practices from established and successful hospital antibiotic stewardship programs. Antibiotic use in animals has lead to the emergence of resistant bacteria, and sometimes these resistant bacteria can be transferred from animals to humans by direct contact or by handling and/or consuming contaminated food. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work on the Farm is an educational campaign with the purpose of promoting appropriate antibiotic use in veterinary medicine and animal agriculture. The second is a point prevalence survey of antibiotic use in selected healthcare facilities from around the U. Antibiotic use data from both initiatives will provide much-needed information for implementing more targeted strategies to improve antibiotic use nationwide. Antibiotic Resistance Requires a Coordinated Response Since the impact of resistance is extensive, the Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance was created to plan and coordinate federal government activities. The Task Force is finalizing an update of “A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance”, which was first released in 2001. The Action Plan will focus on: • reducing inappropriate antimicrobial use; • reducing the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms in institutions, 208 communities, and agriculture • encouraging the development of new anti-infective products, vaccines, and adjunct therapies; and • supporting basic research on antimicrobial resistance. Conclusion With the growing development of antibiotic resistance, it is imperative that we no longer take the availability of effective antibiotics for granted. As a nation, we must respond to this growing problem, and our response needs to be multifactorial and multidisciplinary. It will also result in real- time reporting, which means that there will be greater opportunities for a rapid prevention and control response. Healthcare institutions need robust infection control programs and antibiotic stewardship programs to prevent transmission of resistant bacteria and to decrease the selective pressure for resistance. By building on our current efforts, we can extend the life of current antibiotics and develop future antibiotic therapies to protect us from current and future disease threats. Among the antimicrobial agents in use today are antibiotic drugs (which kill bacteria), antiviral agents (which kill viruses), antifungal agents (which kill fungi), and antiparisitic drugs (which kill parasites). An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial agent made from a mold or a bacterium that kills, or slows the growth of other microbes, specifically bacteria. Resistant bacteria are “enriched” by the lack of susceptible bacteria to compete with for space, 209 resources, hosts, etc.
Thus buy caverta without a prescription erectile dysfunction medications causing, the conceptual set functions as an information collection and processing unit buy generic caverta on-line erectile dysfunction niacin. Examining a person’s set purchase caverta with mastercard impotence erecaid system esteem battery operated vacuum impotence device, choice, and conceptual set offered a way to examine issues of indi- vidual cognitive patterns and its impact on behavioral system balance. The most recent study (Holaday,Turner-Henson, & Swan, 1997) drew from the knowledge gained from pre- vious studies. Our results indicate that it was possible to determine the impact of a lack of functional requirements on a child’s actions and to identify behavioral system imbalance and the need for speciﬁc types of nursing intervention. The goal of my research program has been to describe the relations both among and within the subsystems that make up the integrated whole and to identify the type of nursing interventions that restore behavioral sys- tem balance. American Nursing Diagnosis Association) diag- ulty; however, no published material is available noses, which demonstrated considerable overlap. The evaluating the quality of nursing care (Dee & primary focus of the program would be the study Auger, 1983). The student The early works of Dee and Auger lead to fur- would need a background in systems theory and ther reﬁnement in the patient classiﬁcation system. These re- she enabled nurses to make statements about the sources are allocated based on the assigned levels of links between nursing input and health outcomes nursing intervention, and resource needs are calcu- for clients. The model has been useful in practice lated based on the total number of patients as- because it identiﬁes an end product (behavioral signed according to levels of nursing interventions system balance), which is nursing’s goal. Nursing’s and the hours of nursing care associated with each of the levels (Dee & Randell, 1989) (see Table 8–2). The development of this system has provided nurs- Nursing’s speciﬁc objective is to maintain ing administration with the ability to identify the or restore the person’s behavioral system levels of staff needed to provide care (licensed vo- balance and stability, or to help the per- cational nurse versus registered nurse), bill patients son achieve a more optimum level of for actual nursing care services, and identify nurs- functioning. Recent research has demon- speciﬁc objective is to maintain or restore the per- strated the importance of a model-based nursing son’s behavioral system balance and stability, or to database in medical records (Poster, Dee, & help the person achieve a more optimum level of Randell, 1997) and the effectiveness of using a functioning. The model provides a means for iden- model to identify the characteristics of a large hos- tifying the source of the problem in the system. From the ﬁndings of their work, it is critical adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. The use of the model practitioners in the clinical setting, provided a has had a major impact on all phases of the nurs- framework for the integration of staff knowledge ing process, including a more systematic assess- about the clients, and promoted continuity in the ment process, identiﬁcation of patient strengths delivery of care. These ﬁndings should be general- and problem areas, and an objective means for izable to a variety of clinical settings. The utility of system models and developmen- The Johnson Behavioral System Model cap- tal models for practitioners. Metastatic bone pain: While the perspective presented here is em- Meanings associated with self-report and management deci- bedded in the past, there remains the poten- sion making. Construct validity in psy- cant research problems that have both theo- chological tests. Implementation of the Johnson Model: One of problem areas worthy of investigation that hospital’s experience. A patient classiﬁcation system based clude examining the levels of integration (bi- on the Behavioral System Model of Nursing: Part 2. Journal of ological, psychological, and sociocultural) Nursing Administration, 13(5), 18–23. Managed behav- concern with the relations between one’s ioral health care patients and their nursing care problems, biological system (e. An instrument for theory and research development using the behavioral systems model for nursing: concept), self in relation to the physical envi- The cancer patient. Sensitivity of the Derdiarian home), and transactions related to the socio- Behavioral Systems Model Instrument to age, site and type of cultural context (e. The relationships among the subsys- the onset of puberty, menopause, death of a tems of Johnson’s Behavioral System Model. Nursing studies will provide not only an opportunity Administration Quarterly, 15(3), 1–16. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, explanation and does so using a shared lan- 436–446. New Blueprint for use of nursing models: Education, research, prac- York: Harper & Row. She lives on in the author’s heart, as I hope Myra Levine has been called a Renaissance she will in yours as you learn about her and the woman—highly principled, remarkable, and com- model she unknowingly created to develop nursing mitted to what happens to the patients’ quality of knowledge. She was a daughter, sister, wife, mother, friend, Levine was born in Chicago and was raised with educator, administrator, student of humanities, a sister and a brother with whom she shared a close, scholar, enabler, and conﬁdante. She thinks that this ‘holistic’ in favor of ‘organismic,’ largely because the might have been why she had such a great interest term ‘holistic’ had been appropriated by pseudosci- in nursing. Levine’s mother was a strong woman entists endowing it with the mythology of tran- who kept the home ﬁlled with love and warmth. I used ‘holism’ in the second edition She was very supportive of Levine’s choice to be a in 1973 because I realized it was too important to nurse. I believed that it was nursing as I did” (Levine, 1988b) because she was the proper description of the way the internal envi- devoted to caring for her father when he was ill. Being in nursing school was a new expe- and yet books do have a life all their own. They gather rience for her; she called it a “great adventure” life from the use to which they are put, and when they (Levine, 1988b). She received her diploma from succeed in communicating among many individuals Cook County in 1944. She later received her bach- in many places, then their intent is most truly served. She was a civilian nurse at the (1969b) provided a model to teach medical surgical Gardiner General Hospital, director of nursing at nursing and created a dialogue among colleagues Drexel Home in Chicago, clinical instructor at about the plan itself. The text has continued to cre- Bryan Memorial Hospital in Lincoln, Nebraska, ate dialogue about the art and science of nursing and administrative supervisor at University of with ongoing research serving as a testament to its Chicago Clinics and Henry Ford Hospital in value (Delmore, 2003; Mefford, 1999). She was a visiting professor Levine’s original reason for writing the book was to at Tel Aviv University in Israel and Recanti School ﬁnd a way to teach the foundations of nursing that of Nursing at Ben Gurion University of the Negev would focus on nursing and was organized in such in Beer Sheeva, Israel. She was professor emeritus a way that nursing students would learn the skill as in Medical Surgical Nursing, University of Chicago, well as the rationale for the skill. She felt that nursing Tau International, from which she received the research was generally ignored. Her intent was to Elizabeth Russell Belford Award as distinguished bring practice and research together to establish educator. The first chapter of her text was entitled, Introducing the Theory “Introduction to Patient Centered Nursing Care,” a model of care delivery that is now acclaimed to be F. Davis Company published the ﬁrst edition of the answer to cost-effective delivery of health-care Myra Levine’s textbook Introduction to Clinical services today. She believed that patient-centered Nursing in 1969 and the second and last editions in care was “individualized nursing care” (Levine, 1973. The nursing care chapters in her text focus on nurs- Her way of organizing the material was a shift ing care of the patient with: from teaching nursing based on the disease model. She “borrowed” information from other disciplines while retaining the basic structure of nursing in the model (Levine, 1988a).
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Alternative and complementary medicine need For all its seemingly newfound accolades and not be “on the fringe” but rather a meritorious anecdotal successes, what we call alternative med- component among a staggering array of modern icine really began when humankind ﬁrst recog- comforts and conveniences. Finally a visible force nized the need to deal with and counteract in the mainstream, the field of alternative thera- abnormalities and ailments that emerged in their pies pours into American homes by way of televi- lives. The ancients developed their own medicines, sion and other broadcast media, newspapers, treatments that ultimately involved acknowledg- books, and magazines, including Alternative Thera- ment of a mind-body connection, from whatever pies in Health and Medicine, a peer-reviewed journal nature provided. The Ameri- individual, and with it vitality of mind and heart can psychologist and philosopher William James Introduction xxiii (1842–1910) summed it up so many years ago: feel with their own hearts,” many of us have in “The great revolution of our generation is the dis- fact grown willing to accept and choose options covery that human beings, by changing the inner that defy specific explanation, and still more are attitudes of their minds, can change the outer beginning to follow that lead. Now, at last, ours is a relentless, all- “Few are those who see with their own eyes and embracing quest for healing and flourishing. Aama is said to cause indigestion, bad breath, a coated tongue, and other gastrointestinal prob- acupoints Also called acupuncture points or trig- lems. The accumulation of these unusable ger points, speciﬁc places along a network of nerves “remains” in the body is also said to instigate an and other bodily structures used as landmarks over immune-system problem, in which they may be which to apply pressure, as in acupressure; insert attacked by antibodies, thus causing the aama sites acupuncture needles; or apply other methods to the to swell, lodge themselves in body tissues, and cre- skin in order to release the ﬂow of energy so an ail- ate dysfunction. For example, one Ayurvedic belief ing or dysfunctional organ or body part may heal. A homeopathic belief relates acupressure An ancient Asian technique of nat- physical aama to psychological aama, involving ural healing, at least 5000 years old, involving the stress or any type of mental “overload,” as a possi- use of the hands and ﬁngers to apply pressure on ble cause of physical symptoms. The third most popular method for treating pain abortifacient Any agent, substance, or method and illness in the world and considered a painless, intended to induce an abortion, that is, deliberate nontoxic method for redirecting ch’i, the Chinese termination of a pregnancy, usually during the ear- word for energy, acupressure (and its close associ- liest stage. When suppository or injection before 47 days have ch’i ﬂows unimpeded throughout the body, well- elapsed since a woman’s last menstrual period if being results. Related to acupuncture without However, various methods of alternative medi- the use of needles, acupressure is said to be effec- cine attempt to treat miscarriage, the unexplained, tive as disease prevention as well as a component spontaneous, and undesired loss of an embryo or of traditional treatments for arthritis, carpal tunnel fetus. For symptoms of distress, shock, bleeding, syndrome, chronic pain, symptoms of addiction and pain, practitioners of alternative medicine may withdrawal, motion sickness, multiple sclerosis, employ astringent remedies to discourage bleeding, insomnia, fatigue, bronchitis, colds and ﬂu, arthri- herbal sedatives, aromatherapy, Bach Flower tis, allergies, pneumonia, toothache, sinusitis, sciat- Remedies, the homeopathic substances ignatia and ica, nausea, hemorrhoids, ear infection, diarrhea, 1 2 acupuncture fever, indigestion—approximately 3,000 maladies were treated with acupressure daily for 21 days on altogether. A According to the Complementary Wellness Pro- marked improvement was found in 29 percent of fessional Association (http://www. The association says that regular, systematic Acupuncture is reported to relieve blockage, pres- treatment usually gets the best results. Treatment sure, or other ill effects from the body’s 14 major three times each day for ﬁve to 10 minutes, or meridians, or energy channels. Rendered as qi or every two hours if necessary, reﬂects the concept ch’i (pronounced “chee”), the ﬂow of this energy or that acupressure’s positive effects are cumulative— life force is essential to health. Given a new credi- one cannot overdose because the treatments are bility and acknowledgment by Western practition- safe. However, they are not recommended for ers, acupuncture studies suggest that the technique administration directly after a meal, and pregnant stimulates the release of the body’s natural, opiate- women should avoid pressure at certain points like substances called endorphins. Endorphins and plementary Health (Hamlyn, London, 2000), acu- enkephalins, also polypeptides that work as endor- pressure is similar to shiatsu, which means “ﬁnger phins do, are thought also to contribute to a feeling pressure” in Japanese, in that it is meant to trigger of well-being. It branches The author and physician Richard Gerber off from shiatsu, which includes massage, in that explained the 12-pathway acupuncture-meridian acupressure mostly employs thumb and ﬁngertip system as “the body’s biocircuitry,” through which pressure on acupuncture points. In clinical studies, more than 1,000 acupoints carry the environmen- acupressure was successfully used to treat morning tal life energy ch’i. This type of ‘inher- study to exclude any with organic disease or infec- ited’ life energy is referred to as ancestral ch’i. The tion, and 142 workers with chronic lumbar pain second source of ch’i is absorbed (and produced) acupuncture 3 from the foods we eat. The third (and possibly the 1997, “acupuncture’s credibility as a viable medical most important) source of ch’i comes directly from treatment was bolstered by the U. Acupoints appear to function acupuncture needle is a safe and effective medical like tiny energy pores in the skin that absorb this instrument. They reasoned that these also seem to function like miniature electrical relay points acted as ampliﬁers to boost the minute elec- stations along a vast power line, helping to main- trical signals as they traveled along the body, and tain the ﬂow of energy along each meridian,” Ger- that the insertion of a needle could interfere with ber wrote; that concept, he believes, requires “a that ﬂow and thus block the stimulus of pain. Acupuncture is also reported to would preclude the use of acupuncture as a treat- have positive results in the treatment of addiction ment modality, and no known side effects, with the withdrawal and in the course of rehabilitation for exception of infection resulting from improperly stroke patients. Patients may request disposable nee- common cold, tonsillitis, eye inﬂammation, near- dles to eliminate the sterilization issue. For individ- sightedness, duodenal ulcer and other gastroin- uals who have a fear of needles, there are laser testinal disorders, trigeminal neuralgia, Ménière’s acupuncture, which uses laser beams instead of disease, tennis elbow, sciatica, rheumatoid condi- needles; ultrasound and light-therapy acupunc- tions, menstrual cramps, radiation illness and other ture, which use sound waves and light waves in types of environmental poisoning, and speech lieu of needles; and electroacupuncture, which aphasia may also be treated with acupuncture. Orga- placed top-down on an acupoint or any ﬂat area nizations that set standards and certify practitioners such as the back, abdomen, or legs. The vacuum include the Accreditation Commission for created by the cups “sucks” the skin so that blood Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and the rushes to the point and rebalances the ﬂow of National Certiﬁcation Commission for Acupunc- energy. A tiny gests that the typical gauge for effectiveness is 10 stick, roll, or cone-shaped amount of moxa, from sessions, and chronic pain relief should be experi- the herb mugwort, burns on the head of the nee- enced from acupuncture after six treatments. The moxa, conditions such as asthma may require months of which may also be used without needles but with acupuncture before a patient perceives relief. Auricular therapy, revived and improved in the “Many unconventional treatments have been 1960s by the French acupuncturist Dr. Herbert is a type of acupuncture that focuses exclusively on Benson in Timeless Healing (Scribner, New York, the ear for pain management and the treatment of 1996), “but their positive effects, if present and migraines, arthritis, and stomach ailments. When above those of remembered wellness, are still ques- Nogier treated patients with sciatica by cauterizing tionable. If its inher- part of their earlobes, he discovered after they ent healing effects were equivalent to those of reported relief that the technique dated back to proven scientiﬁc remedies, they would already have ancient Egypt. Also, while small acupuncture needles Beinﬁeld, and her coauthor Efrem Korngold, also a may be used in the ear, electrotherapy, light ther- licensed acupuncturist and practitioner of osteo- apy, and small, magnetically charged ball bearings pathic manipulative medicine, wrote in Between (which can be taped over acupoints for long-term, Heaven and Earth: A Guide to Chinese Medicine (Bal- or semipermanent, therapy) may be preferred lantine Books, New York, 1991): “While neurolog- methods. Auricular therapists, popular in France, ical and hormonal hypotheses describe how say this type of acupuncture helps provide diagnos- acupuncture alleviates pain, they do not accurately tic information; is less invasive than regular explain its diverse therapeutic effects. The measurable electrical prop- immunoglobulins, gastrointestinal peristalsis, erties of acupuncture points allow practitioners to secretion of hydrochloric acid, and the production diagnose problems, and auricular therapy is said to of red and white blood cells. Acupuncture seems to relieve addictions, certain respiratory disorders, adjust all the physiological processes of the organ- labor pains, and pain related to terminal illnesses. The the United States are licensed, registered, or certi- central issue from the classical Chinese medical ﬁed, and approximately 3000 medical doctors, both point of view is not why acupuncture works, but Alexander Technique 5 rather how and when to use it. The dynamic balance agni Ayurvedic term referring to the element of that Chinese medicine equates with health mani- ﬁre, the central bodily ﬁre, the digestive ﬁre, or the fests as smooth and constant movement. In Chinese medicine, this logic is reversed, stress reduction developed by the Australian actor so that global changes in the whole organism result Frederick Matthias Alexander (1869–1955, born in in the disappearance of speciﬁc symptoms. In Tasmania), who believed that “every man, woman acupuncture ‘secondary’ effects are intended, all and child holds the possibility of physical perfection; part of one continuous process of change. According to the self-help author move or rest harmoniously, he taught, stressors such Stuart Wilde, there are four types of afﬁrmations— as tension and emotional problems may become word, thought, feeling, and action—and there are worse or evolve into more serious health problems. For my reading, he had the tendency to suck in air and energy has now risen above and beyond any errors pull his head down, actions that put pressure on I may have made in the past,” are geared to calm- his vocal cords and adversely affected his spine, ing emotions and evoking the energetic, personal back, and breathing pattern.
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