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Inflammation of the sinuses ( sinusitis ) is another common complication of hay fever purchase mentat 60caps free shipping treatment by lanshin. People with very severe hay fever often find that it can disrupt their productivity at school or work buy mentat without prescription medications side effects. It involves being exposed to small amounts of pollen over time cheap mentat american express symptoms 9dpo, to build resistance to its allergic effects. Treatment options for hay fever include antihistamines, which can help to prevent an allergic reaction from occurring and corticosteroids (steroids) , which help to reduce inflammation and swelling. Grass pollen, released during the end of spring and beginning of summer. It contains proteins that can cause the nose, eyes, throat and sinuses (small air-filled cavities behind your cheekbones and forehead) to become swollen, irritated and inflamed. Some common types of grass produce more pollen spores, including Timothy, Johnson, Bermuda, Orchard, Rye, Kentucky and Sweet Vernal grasses.3 Instead, try planting the female buffalo grass plant as it does not flower and therefore produces little to no pollen. Avoid hardwood deciduous trees that can aggravate allergies, including birch, oak, elm, maple, ash, alder and hazel. The most common types of grasses that cause allergies include Bermuda, Johnson, Kentucky, Orchard, Rye, Sweet Vernal and Timothy. It is a potent and widespread cause of pollen allergy symptoms. Allergy testing by an allergist can assess whether your symptoms are caused by pollen, mold or another substance. Enjoy more of the great outdoors by learning about common seasonal allergy triggers and finding out how you can help reduce your exposure to them. A humidifier may help remove some of the allergens out of the air. Avoid if allergic or hypersensitive to vitamin E. For short periods of time, vitamin E supplementation is generally considered safe at doses up to 1,000 milligrams per day. Spirulina : Anti-inflammatory properties of spirulina may help improve symptoms of allergic rhinitis. For allergic rhinitis, there is not enough evidence to make a conclusion at this time. Avoid if allergic or hypersensitive to kiwi, latex, birch pollen, banana, chestnut, fig, flour, melon, poppy seeds, rye grain, sesame seeds, and related substances. Hypnotherapy, hypnosis : It has been suggested that hypnotherapy may be effective for allergies and may help treat hay fever. Avoid if allergic or hypersensitive to honey, pollen, celery or bees. Avoid if allergic to eucalypThis oil or with a history of seizure, diabetes, asthma, heart disease, abnormal heart rhythms, intestinal disorders, liver disease, kidney disease, lung disease, or the blood condition known as acute intermittent porphyria. Ephedra : Preliminary study suggests that ephedrine nasal spray may help treat allergic rhinitis. Choline : Oral tricholine citrate (TRI) effectively relieved allergic rhinitis symptoms in limited available study. Nasal irrigation : There is good evidence from clinical studies to recommend the use of nasal irrigation in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Decongestants: Decongestants may help relieve symptoms, such as nasal congestion (stuffy nose). Cromolyn sodium: Cromolyn sodium is available over-the-counter as a nasal spray (Nasalcrom©) for treating hay fever. Skin test: The standard diagnostic test for pollen allergies is a skin test. For instance, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) has a network of pollen counters across the United States. These allergies are seasonal because they occur when the allergy-causing plants are in bloom. According to the American Lung Association, an estimated 26.1 million Americans suffer from hay fever symptoms each year. Plants, such as grasses and low-growing weeds (like ragweed), have airborne pollen, while plants with bright flowers (like roses) have waxy pollens that are carried from plant to plant by insects (like bees). But since temperatures switched so sharply from winter to spring, maple, birch, oak, and other trees pollenated at once. Over-the-counter treatments should be sufficient to ease your hay fever symptoms, but if you are experiencing more severe symptoms, you should speak to your GP. Weed pollen can be released at any time from the early spring to the late autumn. Tree pollen tends to be released during spring and affects around 25% of people. Depending on the time of year, the type of pollen in the air will be different. Most people develop hay fever in childhood or when they are a teenager, although it can be triggered at any age. For those with an allergy, pollen triggers the antibody immunoglobulin E, which creates mucus and leads to symptoms such as congestion and sneezing. Pollen can cause significant irritation and inflammation in people who are allergic to it. Pollen can be inhaled by humans and animals. Saline sinus rinses can bring much relief to those with chronic sinus or rhinitis problems by removing pollen from the nasal and sinus passages. Avoid activities that cause pollen to reenter the air such as lawn mowing or leaf blowing or use a facial mask and goggles if unable to avoid this contact during these activities. Grass and spring weed pollens start to appear in early May and continue through early summer. There are specific measures you can begin prior to seeing our allergist for a consultation to determine which specific allergens are causing your symptoms. (Runny nose, nasal congestion and itchy, red, watery eyes) "Pollen allergy: Causes, symptoms, and treatment." Medical News Today. Medication and at-home treatments are available to reduce symptoms until the pollen season subsides. A pollen allergy is a common but irritating condition. However, the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology have not found any research to confirm that consuming local honey will help reduce allergy symptoms. Some natural food experts maintain that eating local honey can help reduce pollen allergies in the same way that allergy shots do. Taking a bath or shower each night before going to bed to rid the skin and hair of pollen buildup. A person should start taking these medications a few weeks before allergy season begins. Medical treatments, home remedies, and changes in some lifestyle habits can help ease symptoms of pollen allergy.

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Section L – Palliative care and bereavement Standard Implementation Paediatric timescale L6(L2) The lead doctor purchase mentat no prescription medicine 5325, with the named nurse order mentat 60caps free shipping symptoms als, will ensure that the agreed end-of-life plan is clearly Immediate documented and agreed with all medical discount mentat master card treatment warts, nursing and psychological support team members (including lead clinicians in other treatment units and relevant community services) to ensure that all clinical staff understand the ongoing care and the reasons further active treatment may not be possible. L7(L2) Communication and end-of-life care discussions with children, young people and their Immediate families/carers must be open, honest and accurate. L9(L2) For children and young people remaining in hospital, a named member of the nursing and medical Immediate staff will be identified during every shift so that they and their parents/carers can easily seek answers to questions and express wishes, worries and fears. L10(L2) The room and environment must be prepared to meet the palliative care needs and wishes of the Immediate child/young person and their family/carers, and allow them the privacy needed to feel that they can express their feelings freely. L11(L2) All members of the clinical team must be familiar with the bereavement services available in their Immediate hospital. L12(L2) Children/young people and their families/carers must be made aware of multi-faith staff and facilities Immediate within the hospital. Discharge and out-of-hospital care L13(L2) Any planned discharge must be managed by the named nurse who will coordinate the process and Immediate link with the child/young person and their family. L15(L2) Support for children/young people and their families/carers must continue if they choose to have Immediate their end-of-life care in the community. Families/carers must be given written details of how to contact support staff 24/7. Management of a Death (whether expected or unexpected) L16(L2) The team supporting a child/young person, and their family/carers, at the end of their life must adopt Immediate a holistic approach that takes into consideration emotional, cultural and spiritual needs, their ability to understand that this is the end of life, and must take account of and respect the wishes of the child/young person and their family/carers where possible. L17(L2) If a family would like to involve the support of members of their home community, the hospital-based Immediate named nurse, as identified above, will ensure they are invited into the hospital. L18(L2) Young people, parents and carers will be offered an opportunity to discuss the donation of organs Immediate and tissues with the Donor team. L19(L2) The lead doctor/named nurse will inform the hospital bereavement team that a child is dying. They Immediate should only be introduced to the family/carers before a death has occurred, if they have specifically requested to meet them. L20(L2) Families/carers must be allowed to spend as much time as possible with their child after their death, Immediate supported by nursing and medical staff, as appropriate. It is essential that families have an 262 Classification: Official Level 2 – Specialist Children’s Cardiology Centres. Section L – Palliative care and bereavement Standard Implementation Paediatric timescale opportunity to collect memories of their child. L21(L2) When a death occurs in hospital, the processes that follow a death need to be explained verbally, at Immediate the family’s pace and backed up with written information. This will include legal aspects, and the possible need for referral to the coroner and post-mortem. Where possible, continuity of care should be maintained, the clinical team working closely with the bereavement team. Help with the registration of the death, transport of the body and sign-posting of funeral services will be offered. L22(L2) Informing hospital and community staff that there has been a death will fall to the identified lead Immediate doctor and/or named nurse in the hospital. L23(L2) Contact details of agreed, named professionals within the paediatric cardiology team and Immediate bereavement team will be provided to the child/young person’s family/carers at the time they leave hospital. L24(L2) Staff involved at the time of a death will have an opportunity to talk through their experience either Immediate with senior staff, psychology or other support services, e. Ongoing support after the death of a child/young person L25(L2) Within one working week after a death, the specialist nurse, or other named support, will contact the Immediate family at a mutually agreed time and location. L26(L2) Within six weeks of the death, the identified lead doctor will write to invite the family/carers to visit Immediate the hospital team to discuss their child’s death. This should, where possible, be timed to follow the results of a post-mortem or coroner’s investigation. The family/carers will be offered both verbal and written information that explains clearly and accurately the treatment plan, any complications and the cause of death. Families who wish to visit the hospital before their formal appointment should be made welcome by the ward team. Section L – Palliative care and bereavement Standard Implementation Paediatric timescale L27(L2) When a centre is informed of an unexpected death, in another hospital or in the community, the Immediate identified lead doctor will contact the family/carers. L28(L2) If families/carers are seeking more formal ongoing support, the identified Children’s Cardiac Nurse Immediate Specialist/named nurse will liaise with appropriate services to arrange this. Section M - Dental Implementation Standard Paediatric timescale M1(L2) Children and young people and their parents/carers will be given appropriate evidence-based Immediate preventive dental advice at time of congenital heart disease diagnosis by the cardiologist or nurse. M2(L2) The Specialist Children’s Cardiology Centre must ensure that identified dental treatment needs are Immediate addressed prior to referral (where possible) and any outstanding treatment needs are shared with the interventional/surgical team and included in referral documentation. M3(L2) All children at increased risk of endocarditis must be referred for specialist dental assessment at Immediate two years of age, and have a tailored programme for specialist follow-up. M4(L2) Each Congenital Heart Network must have a clear referral pathway for urgent dental assessments Immediate for congenital heart disease patients presenting with infective endocarditis, dental pain, acute dental infection or dental trauma. All children and young people admitted and diagnosed with infective endocarditis must have a dental assessment within 72 hours. M5(L2) Specialist Children’s Cardiology Centres must either provide access to theatre facilities and Immediate appropriate anaesthetic support for the provision of specialist-led dental treatment under general anaesthetic for children and young people with congenital heart disease or refer such patients to the Specialist Children’s Surgical Centre. Section A - The Network Approach 9 Paediatric Congenital Heart Disease Standards: Level 3 – Local Children’s Cardiology Centres Standard Implementation Paediatric timescale A1(L3) To ensure that children and young people receive as much non-interventional treatment as close to Immediate their home as is safe, Congenital Heart Networks will be supported by Local Children’s Cardiology Centres. The precise shape of each Congenital Heart Network will be determined by local need and local circumstances, including geography and transport. A2(L3) Each Local Children’s Cardiology Centre will provide appropriate managerial and administrative Within 6 months support for the effective operation of the network. A3(L3) Local Children’s Cardiology Centres must belong to a defined Congenital Heart Network and must Immediate comply with protocols, including those for shared care and pathways of care as defined as part of network arrangements. Each Local Children’s Cardiology Centre will provide pathways of care and management of congenital heart defects agreed with the Congenital Heart Network: a. Prenatally diagnosed congenital heart defects If prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects has been made or is suspected the mother will be referred to the network fetal cardiac service. Counselling will take place including discussion about the location of the delivery of the baby. Neonates and infants diagnosed with congenital heart defects Each Local Children’s Cardiology Centre will provide close monitoring for the development of heart failure, cyanosis or arrhythmias, and their initial management by medical treatment, if appropriate. Section A - The Network Approach Standard Implementation Paediatric timescale the following:  Murmurs  Cyanosis  Chest pain  Palpitations  Syncope or dizziness  Screening because of family history of congenital heart defect, cardiomyopathy or other syndromes  Kawasaki disease e. Ongoing care of children and young people diagnosed with congenital heart defects Local hospitals will refer children/young people to the Local Children’s Cardiology Centre as appropriate, for close monitoring for the development of heart failure or cyanosis, depending on the underlying heart defect, for the monitoring and treatment and control of arrhythmias, and for the adjustment of various cardiac drugs. A4(L3) Local Children’s Cardiology Centres will adhere to their Congenital Heart Network’s clinical Within 1 year protocols and pathways to care that will: a. Section A - The Network Approach Standard Implementation Paediatric timescale collectively they provide a national service); e. A5(L3) There will be specific protocols within each Congenital Heart Network for the transfer of children Within 6 months and young people requiring interventional treatment. A6(L3) All children and young people transferring across or between networks will be accompanied by high Immediate quality information, including a health records summary (with responsible clinician’s name) and a management plan. The health records summary will be a standard national template developed and agreed by Specialist Children’s Surgical Centres, representatives of the Congenital Heart Networks and commissioners.

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This suggests a regulatory role of C3a desArg in cell apoptosis and lipid metabolism (Cianflone et al generic mentat 60 caps on-line medicine 751. These receptors are the C3a receptor (C3aR) buy mentat 60 caps without a prescription symptoms enlarged prostate, the C5a receptor (C5aR) and the C5a receptor-like 2 (C5L2) mentat 60caps otc treatment vitamin d deficiency. This receptor displays high affinity for C3a with a dissociation constant (Kd) of about 1 nM, but not for C3a desArg or C5a (Crass et al. Human platelets express a high molecular weight (95-105 kDa) variant of C3aR that binds C3a with Kd of 8 x 10-10 M. C3aR distinctively possesses a large second extracellular loop between the fourth and fifth transmembrane domain that is indispensable for ligand binding. C3aR displays 50-60% homology between various species, with 65% sequence identity between human and murine counterparts (Hollmann et al. Additionally, C3aR is also expressed on non-myeloid cells, such as astrocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and activated T cells. One paper has described the receptor’s expression on human tonsillar B cells; while others have confirmed the absence of C3aR on human B cells. The receptor is also expressed in tissues from lung, liver, kidney, brain, heart, muscle and, testis. It can also trigger oxidative burst in macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils (Burg et al. Human monocytes and mast cells exhibit increased intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels when stimulated with C3a (Venkatesha et al. Human C5aR binds C5a with a Kd of 1 nM, and with 10 to 100-fold lower affinity to C5a desArg (Kd of 412-660 nM) whereas C3a and C3a desArg are not recognized (Monk et al. Murine C5aR exhibits 65% sequence identity with its human counterpart (Gerard et al. The N terminus of C5aR is required for high affinity binding of C5a, but not for receptor activation (DeMartino et al. A second distinct binding site is formed by charged residues in the second and third extracellular loops and the external faces of the transmembrane helical bundle and Inflammation, Chronic Diseases and Cancer – 166 Cell and Molecular Biology, Immunology and Clinical Bases hydrophobic residues in the core of the C5aR. Unlike the N terminal binding site, the second site is responsible for receptor activation (Gerber et al. Current evidence suggests that at least three different discontinuous regions exist within the C5a molecule for interaction with C5aR (Huber-Lang et al. Our preliminary findings suggest that C5a can promote human mast cell adhesion to extracellular matrix protein, as well as human mast cell migration in vitro, indicating a critical role of C5a/C5aR in inflammation. C5aR also couples directly or indirectly to a small range of other intracellular proteins. Unlike C5aR, C5L2 binds C5a desArg with a 20-30 fold higher affinity (Cain and Monk, 2002). In the conserved transmembrane regions, C5L2 shares 58% sequence identity with C5aR and 55% with C3aR (Lee et al. Unlike C5aR, C5L2 uses critical residues in its N terminal domain for binding only to C5a desArg. In addition to C5a and C5a desArg binding, C5L2 has been considered a binding partner for C3a, C3a desArg (Kalant et al. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that C5L2 completely lacks the potential to couple with G proteins. Surface expression of C5L2 has been detected in lung, liver, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, skin fibroblasts, neutrophils, and Inflammation, Chronic Diseases and Cancer – 168 Cell and Molecular Biology, Immunology and Clinical Bases immature, but not mature dendritic cells. C5L2 and C5aR seem to be frequently co-expressed in most cells or tissues (Monk et al. On the one hand, C5L2 has been described as a non-signaling decoy receptor for C5a and C5a desArg. In contrast, some studies suggest that C5L2 serves as a signaling functional receptor. In support of a role as a decoy receptor, no mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ occurs in C5L2 transfected cells after C5a administration (Cain and Monk, 2002, Okinaga et al. Moreover, no Ca2+ mobilization occurs in neutrophils from C5aR-deficient mice after stimulation with C5a (Hopken et al. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence that C5L2 is a functional receptor capable of regulating C5aR function in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, C5L2-deficient mice suffer from augmented inflammatory responses and higher numbers of infiltrating neutrophils in a model of pulmonary immune complex injury (Gerard et al. Indeed, the plasma concentrations of these mediators are comparable to those found in C5aR-deficient mice. Furthermore, C5L2-deficient mice, like C5aR-deficient mice, or mice in which either of the receptors are blocked by anti- receptor antibodies, show a higher survival rate in mid-grade sepsis (Rittirsch et al. Thus, these studies point to a more complex role of C5L2 in inflammation with C5L2 acting not only as a decoy receptor but also as positive modulator of C5aR and even C3aR. Although C3a desArg does not bind directly to C5L2, overexpression of C5L2 or its downregulation by antisense oligonucleotides influences the effects of C3a desArg (Kalant et al. A recent study has found that noradrenaline upregulates C5L2 message and protein in rat astrocytes, and this correlates with an anti-inflammatory response induced by noradrenaline. These observations suggest that the presence of C5L2 may exert some inhibitory effects within the cell, although the mechanisms behind such responses are currently unknown. This facilitates the free subunits interactions with various effector molecules and initiates downstream signaling (Pundir and Kulka, 2010). Given that the activation of C3aR and C5aR can induce massive inflammation and tissue destruction, there are mechanisms in place to limit complement activation where and when it occurs. As mentioned before, after generation, C3a and C5a are quickly degraded by plasma carboxypeptidases. The enzyme cleave the C-terminal arginine, resulting in C3a desArg and C5a desArg formation, each having less than 10% of their original biological activity (Bokisch and Muller-Eberhard, 1970). Formation of C3a and C5a is also regulated by either preventing the assembly of C3 convertase or, once it is formed, by inhibiting its activity. This increase in receptor phosphorylation is associated with a significant inhibition of degranulation. A recent study has identified the roles of β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2 on C3aR desensitization and internalization (Vibhuti et al. This demonstrates that β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2 play a distinct role on C3aR desensitization, internalization and mediator generation in human mast cells (Vibhuti et al. Complement Receptors in Inflammation 171 Upon ligand binding, C5aR undergoes rapid phosphorylation of the six serine residues located in the carboxyl-terminal tail (Giannini et al. Upon addition of C5a, β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2 rapidly move from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, co-localize with C5aR, promote endocytosis of C5aR and remain associated to C5aR-containing vesicles. Furthermore, this study also indicates that C5aR is mainly internalized via the classical clathrin-dependent pathway (Braun et al. Following stimulation with C5a, association of both C5aR and C5L2 with β- arrestin is greatly increased.

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Since this historical observation purchase mentat with amex 20 medications that cause memory loss, the role of inflammation in the genesis and progression of many acute diseases (e purchase mentat 60caps with visa symptoms 5dp5dt fet. However generic mentat 60 caps free shipping treatment 34690 diagnosis, the mechanisms of inflammatory responses in the induction of a wide range of inflammatory diseases or cancer that are manifested in tissues as site- specific conditions are not understood. For example, the ongoing debates and controversies in literature whether inflammation is protective in preventing carcinogenesis or it is a cause of cancer demonstrate lack of understanding in differentiating the role of acute and chronic inflammatory responses in preventing or inducing cancer. Consequently, despite heavy public investment for over four decades on cancer war, too many expensive and out-of- focus clinical trials that use potent drugs which are pro-inflammatory mediators or inhibitors of growth factors (poisons) have caused serious and life-threatening side-effects for cancer patients (reviewed in Khatami 2011 a, b). This chapter will provide a brief overview of recent definitions for acute and chronic inflammation and the role that inflammation plays in the induction of acute and age- associated chronic diseases, with emphasis on cancer. Attempts were made to demonstrate that self-terminating natural property of immune system (immune surveillance) in acute inflammation is protective to the body (‘Friend’). However, unresolved and persistent inflammation (oxidative stress) could change the dynamics of immune responses creating an immunological chaos or ‘immune tsunami’ that would cause loss of architectural integrity and function in susceptible tissues leading to initiation, progression and manifestation of a wide range of chronic conditions or cancer (‘Foe’) that are very likely interrelated and potentially preventable (Khatami, 2008, 2009, 2011 a, b). Outlines of a framework for future designs of clinical trials based on a concept that Inflammation, Chronic Diseases and Cancer – 4 Cell and Molecular Biology, Immunology and Clinical Bases inflammation is a common denominator in the genesis and manifestation of a wide range of age-associated chronic diseases and cancer will also be presented. Acute inflammation: Protective, self-terminating property of immune system: Body’s immune surveillance During evolutionary process, inflammation became an inherent protective and self- limiting property of immune system to guard the body against harmful elements that the body recognizes as foreign elements (stimuli or irritants). Briefly, effective immunity is provided through natural pleiotropy or duality (polarity) of immune cells via acute inflammation to facilitate the organ systems the ability to return to normal physiological function after encountering internal or external foreign elements [e. Acute inflammatory process was recently defined as the balance between two highly regulated and biologically opposing arms termed ‘Yin’ (apoptosis, growth-arresting, pro- inflammatory or tumoricidal) and ‘Yang’ (wound healing, growth-promoting, anti- inflammatory, tumorigenic) responses of immune cells with intimate participation of vasculature (Khatami, 2008) (Figure 1). The principal mission of acute inflammation (immune surveillance) is two folds: 1. Encounter (sense), process/digest, destroy and eliminate intrinsic or extrinsic foreign elements and infected/injured host tissue, 2. Resolve and terminate inflammation and repair and construct or remodel the target/injured host tissue. The major outcome of an acute inflammation is lymphocyte-derived clonal expansion, increased synthesis of allergen- or pathogen-specific antibodies and plasma and memory T and B cells (Khatami 2008, 2009, 2011 a, b). Simply described, apoptosis (‘Yin’) is responsible for production of death signals and oxidants to destroy the enemy and injured host cells, while wound healing (‘Yang’) is required to counteract apoptosis and neutralize and remove the toxic ‘debris’ from the ‘battle field’ and to reconstruct and repair the host and resolve or terminate inflammation. Stimuli- (stressor-) induced a well balanced signals between 2 biologically opposing arms, ‘Yin’ (growth- arresting) and ‘Yang’ (growth-promoting) processes through elaborate cross-talks between immune and non-immune systems (e. The host defense system has also tolerance and remembrance capacities to develop memory and regulatory T or B cells when encountering specific foreign elements including cancerous cells (Khatami 2005 a, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011 a). These events include simultaneous expression of anti-inflammatory mediators, hormones and growth factors (e. These interdependent and complex immunobiological cross talks are examples of numerous other sophisticated bilateral communications between immune and non-immune systems that are orchestrated during acute inflammatory responses to maintain and protect the psychophysiological and architectural integrity of organ systems throughout life. Acute inflammation induces bilateral and balanced responses between apoptotic (‘Yin’) and wound healing (‘Yang’) pathways. Pleiotropic roles of immune responses and oxidative stress-induced immune suppression. Unresolved inflammation: ‘Immune tsunami’ and loss of architectural integrity in immune-responsive and immune-privileged tissues Unresolved inflammation was defined as the loss of balance between ‘Yin’ and ‘Yang’ of acute inflammation. Briefly, acute inflammation provides immunity (immune surveillance) and protection of target tissues via two major mechanisms (reviewed in Khatami 2009, 2011 a): a. Immune-responsive tissues, the sites of initial contact and processing of internal or external stimuli include squamous and grandular epithelial tissues, epithelial-associated mucosal surfaces (e. Immune surveillance in the immune- privileged tissues (self tolerance or ignorance) is provided by presence of one or a combination of barriers [e. Inflammation and aging could create immune dysfunction (immune tsunami) that cause signal switches by inducing local immune-responsiveness in tissues that are naturally immune-privileged causing tissue necrosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Chronic inflammation can also cause loss of integrity in immune-responsive tissues by induction of local immune-privilege to satisfy increased growth requirements of cancerous cells leading to cancer metastasis and angiogenesis. Inflammation, Chronic Diseases and Cancer – 10 Cell and Molecular Biology, Immunology and Clinical Bases Oxidative stress or continuous exposure to irritants could damage immune surveillance (protection) in either or both immune-responsive and immune-privileged tissues (Figure 3). Oxidative stress could induce exaggerated co-expression of apoptotic and/or wound healing factors in target tissues and create an ‘immunological chaos’ (‘immune tsunami’) that would erode the architectural integrity and function of naturally immune-responsive or immune- privileged tissues (Khatami 2011 a) leading to the induction of a wide range of allergies, chronic infections, autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases as well as cell growth, neoplasia, cancer metastasis and angiogenesis (Abrahams et al, 2003, Culmsee and Landshamer 2006, Ferguson and Griffith 2007, Hamrah et al, 2003, Karman et al, 2004, Khatami 2009, 2011 a, Kwidzinski et al, 2003, Niederkorn 2006, O’Brien et al, 2008, Schneider et al, 2011, Siffrin et al, 2007, Streilein et al, 2002, Widera et al, 2008, Zamiri et al, 2007) (Figure 3). The end results of long-term inflammatory conditions (unresolved inflammation) during the aging process were suggested to be similar to those described for acute inflammatory diseases that lead to organ dysfunction and the genesis of chronic conditions such as neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and cancer (Khatami 2011 a, b). Therefore, while acute inflammation is considered a ‘friend’ that protects the body against harmful elements, chronic or persistent inflammation becomes a ‘foe’ that destroys the tissue integrity and function. Inflammation and age-associated diseases Biology of aging is a complex process involving declines, slow-down or alterations in expression or function of multiple important hormones (e. Aging process is also associated with minor or major changes in immune response profiles and co-expression and co-existence of mismatched or Inflammation, Aging and Cancer: Friend or Foe? Schematic representation of chronic (persistent) inflammation and aging as co- morbidity and co-mortality risk factors in the genesis and progression of chronic diseases. Unresolved inflammation could induce shifts in immune responses in naturally immune- privileged and/or immune-responsive tissues and initiating damage to the cellular components such as proteins, genes and vasculature that would lead to destruction of architectural integrity and function of susceptible tissues and induction of chronic diseases such as autoimmune or neurodegenerative conditions, cardiovascular conditions or tumour growth, cancer metastasis and angiogenesis. Briefly, low grade (unresolved or subclinical) inflammation and longevity are known as co- morbidity and co-mortality risk factors in the genesis and progression of nearly all chronic Inflammation, Chronic Diseases and Cancer – 12 Cell and Molecular Biology, Immunology and Clinical Bases illnesses. Accumulation of confluent, complex and useless cells is considered additional sources of oxidative stress that would maintain activation of immune cells and unresolved inflammation. However, longevity and the rate of functional capacities of organ systems and susceptibility to chronic diseases vary in individuals, due to a combination of genetics, immunological or biological factors and the frequency of exposure to diverse environmental hazards. In an attempt to find a common forum on enormous amount of fragmentary information on the biology of chronic diseases that are linked to inflammation, highlights of major molecular theories of aging are outlined in the following (reviewed in Khatami 2009): a. Oxidative Stress: Aging and stress-induced alterations in redox state of cells is likely a major cause of progressive damage to the biological systems. Oxidative stress-induced altered activity of immune cells would lead to co- expression of inflammatory mediators causing tissue necrosis and/or growth. These immunobiological changes in tissue function are implicated in a wide range of age- associated conditions such as hypertension, asthma, multiple sclerosis, arthritis, diabetes and cardiovascular complications, stroke, atheroma, emphysema, autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s, and cancer (Deng et al, 2008, Ginaldi et al, 2005, Goronzy and Wevand 2005, Khatami 2009, 2011 a, Nagai et al, 2010, Siffrin et al, 2007, Vasto et al, 2008, Zhang 2010). Immunoscenescence: Immunoscenescence is the results of readjustment (remodeling) of immune cell functions, a basis for hyper- or hypo-sensitivity (skewing) responses toward new or self-antigens and an overall defects in lymphohematopoetic progenitor competence. Other contributing factors in changes of immune competency include alterations in bone marrow remodeling and regenerative processes. Age-induced declines in T cell repertoire and accumulation of memory effector cells and oligoclonal complexes (megaclones) result in tissue vulnerability toward infectious agents. Hormones, Metabolites and Lipids in Biology of Aging: Aging process is associated with altered functions of important hormones (e. The influence of these hormones and growth factors on multiple organs and sub-cellular systems (e. It should also be noted that chronic inflammation in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, asthma or diabetes are reported to increase the risks for certain site-specific cancers (e.

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