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The pus order discount fml forte allergy medicine inhaler, which is composed nesses and conjunctivitis (an inflammation of eye membrane discount 5 ml fml forte with amex allergy treatment mumbai, of dead bacteria order fml forte 5 ml on-line allergy shots weight loss, is granular, because of the presence of gran- which is also commonly called “pink eye”). The eye infections are very contagious and are lenging, as the symptoms and appearance of the infection is typically a source of transmission of adenovirus from one reminiscent of a tumor or of a tuberculosis lesion. Children can also develop a sore throat, established infection can produce a great deal of tissue dam- runny nose, cough and flu-like illness. Additionally, the slow growth of the bacteria can make mation of the membranes lining the air passages in the lungs, the treatment of infection with antibiotics very difficult, can also result from adenovirus infection, as can an inflam- because antibiotics rely on bacterial growth in order to exert mation of the stomach called gastroenteritis. But curiously, the virus also protects but instead require the use of specialized and nutritionally dogs against hepatitis. Furthermore, incubation needs to be In the setting of the laboratory, some of the human in the absence of oxygen. The growth of the bacteria is quite strains of adenovirus can transform cells being grown in cell slow. Transformed cells are altered in their regulation of to 14 days to achieve visible growth. In contrast, a bacterium growth, such that the unrestricted growth characteristic of can- like Escherichia coli yields visible colonies after overnight cers occurs. Actinomyces are often described as looking like bread They were first isolated from infected tonsils and adenoidal crumbs. Within the next several years they had been Currently, identification methods such as polymerase obtained from cells involved in respiratory infections. In 1956, chain reaction (PCR), chromatography to detect unique cell the multiple antigenic forms of the virus that had been discov- wall constituents, and antibody-based assays do always per- ered were classified as adenovirus. This was the first known human virus capable of However, antibiotics are ineffective against viruses. Genes that are active early in the replica- tion cycle of adenovirus produce proteins that interfere with See also Bacterial adaptation; Transformation host proteins that are known as anti-oncogenes. Normally, the anti-oncogen proteins are responsive to cell growth, and so act as a signal to the cell to halt growth. By disrupting the anti- AAdjuvant DJUVANT oncogene proteins, this stop signal is eliminated, resulting in the continued and uncontrolled growth of the cell. A tumor is An adjuvant is any substance that enhances the response of the produced. Thus, adenoviruses have become important as one immune system to the foreign material termed an antigen. An Such cancers may be a by-product of adenovirus infec- adjuvant can also be any substance that enhances the effect of tions. The When antigen is injected into an organism being used to infections are fairly common. For example, most children will raise antibodies the effect is to stimulate a greater and more have antibodies to at least four types of adenovirus. The stick-and-ball appearing penton fibers may have useful if a substance itself is not strongly recognized by the a role in the attachment of the virus particle to a protein on the immune system. An example of such a weak immunogen is surface of the host epithelial cell. Adenovirus infections have contributed to the spread of Adjuvants exert their effect in several different ways. The flu-like symptoms of some adenovirus infec- antigen to the immune system over a prolonged period of time. The immune response does not occur all at once, but rather is 4 WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY Agar and agarose continuous over a longer time. This inter- aerobic bacteria and other organisms, a compound called action may stimulate the immune cells to heightened activity. The pyruvic acid in turn is broken down via a series ingestion of the antigen by the immune cell known as the of reactions that collectively are called the tricarboxylic acid phagocyte. This enhanced phagocytosis presents more anti- cycle, or the Kreb’s cycle (named after one the cycle’s discov- gens to the other cells that form the antibody. A principle product of the Kreb’s cycle There are several different types of antigens. The adju- is a compound called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide vant selected typically depends on the animal being used to gen- (NADH2). Different adjuvants produce different reactions of which oxygen is a key. Some adjuvants are inappropri- The energy-generating process in which oxygen func- ate for certain animals, due to the inflammation, tissue damage, tions is termed aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration exists, and ence the choice of an adjuvant include the injection site, the involves the use of an electron acceptor other than oxygen. This type of adjuvant down (this is also known as oxidation) to carbon dioxide and enhances the response to the immunogen of choice via the water. The complete breakdown process yields 38 molecules inclusion of a type of bacteria called mycobacteria into a mix- of adenine triphosphate (ATP) for each molecule of the sugar ture of oil and water. The oil and water acts to emulsify, or spread evenly transport that does not involve oxygen also generates ATP, but throughout the suspension, the mycobacteria and the immuno- not in the same quantity as with aerobic respiration. The other so-called fermentative type of energy generation is a fall-back mechanism to permit the organism’s See also Immunity: active, passive, and delayed survival in an oxygen-depleted environment. The aerobic mode of energy production can occur in the disperse cytoplasm of bacteria and in the compartmental- AAerobes EROBES ized regions of yeast, fungi and algae cells. In the latter microorganisms, the structure in which the reactions take Aerobic microorganisms require the presence of oxygen for place is called the mitochondrion. Molecular oxygen functions in the respiratory path- chondrion are coordinated with other energy-requiring way of the microbes to produce the energy necessary for life. See also Carbon cycle in microorganisms; Metabolism The opposite of an aerobe is an anaerobe. An anaerobe does not require oxygen, or sometimes cannot even tolerate the presence of oxygen. AGAMMAGLOBULINAEMIA WITH HYPER There are various degrees of oxygen tolerance among IGM • see IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASE SYNDROMES aerobic microorganisms. Facultative aerobes prefer the presence of oxygen but can adjust their metabolic machinery so as to grow in the absence of oxygen. Microaerophilic AAgar and agaroseGAR AND AGAROSE organisms are capable of oxygen-dependent growth but can- not grow if the oxygen concentration is that of an air atmo- Agar and agarose are two forms of solid growth media that are sphere (about 21% oxygen). Oxygen functions to accept an electron from a sub- Both agar and agarose act to solidify the nutrients that would stance that yields an electron, typically a substance that con- otherwise remain in solution. Compounds called flavoproteins and to liquefy when heated sufficiently, and both return to a gel cytochromes are key to this electron transport process. By accepting an electron, oxygen Solid media is prepared by heating up the agar and enables a process known as catabolism to occur. The then sterilized, typically in steam-heat apparatus known as an energy is used to sustain the microorganism. The sterile medium is then poured into one half of A common food source for microorganisms is the sugar sterile Petri plates and the lid is placed over the still hot solu- glucose.
These methods permit inserting a normal-sized compo- nents into a small original acetabulum and into a narrow femoral canal without further wear of the bone stock buy cheap fml forte 5 ml allergy symptoms 2015. Our ﬁrst choice was a cementless bipolar-type prosthesis for patients in their forties order fml forte without a prescription allergy vs cold quiz. It is safer to use the multiholed metal outer shell and its screws to stabilize the shell discount fml forte 5 ml without prescription allergy symptoms get worse at night, while at the same time stabilizing the osteotomized portion. After this experience, we decided the component for the acetabular side should be a multiholed metal cup. To bring down the femur, which is necessary to implant the acetabular cup into the original true acetabulum, both the one-stage procedure (Kinoshita and Harana; Kuroki et al. According to these authors, to adjust down the femur sufﬁciently and to enclose a gentle reduction, the two-stage procedure is employed for patients who require lengthening of more than 3cm. Figure 18 shows the relation- ship between the distance of adjusting down and paralysis in our cases. Because of this experi- ence, we decided that the limit of adjusting down for the ﬁrst stage should be less than 2. When the surgery is divided into two stages, an acetabular cup is placed in the ﬁrst stage and the soft tissue release is done. The adjusting is then performed while the patient is conscious to check for paralysis. Relationship between the distance pulled down and paralysis 8080 7070 6060 5050 4040 3030 2020 1010 paralysis (paralysis ( )) paralysis (paralysis ( )) Pulling down of the femur could be done quantitatively by using an external ﬁxator. After the femur is pulled down to the level of the original acetabulum, the femoral prosthesis is implanted in the second stage and the joint is reduced. To avoid intra- operative nerve damage under anesthesia, monitoring of the spinal cord potential (SCP) is recommended. At each step of the operative procedure, the shape and the height of the SCP waves are checked. If there is no change in the waves, the surgery is advanced to the next step. Patient 4 A 61-year-old woman with right side high dislocation, Crowe group IV, is shown in Fig. In general, not all patients with high dislocation of the hip joint require treatment with the method reported in this chapter. When, on the basis of preoperative CT scans, the original acetabulum and the femur are estimated to be narrow for normal- sized components and when the volume of the surrounding bone stock remaining after reaming is judged to be insufﬁcient, this technique is utilized. Furthermore, if a conventional procedure can effectively be applied to a patient with high dislocation, it is not necessary to perform this method. Total hip arthroplasty is recommended even for patients with high dislocation of the hip joint and aims at providing patients with a pain-free, stable, and mobile hip. Back Ground Control Open the Capsule A Resect the Femoral Head Enlarge the Acetabulum Implant the Outer Shell C B Fig. A 61-year-old woman undergoing ﬁrst stage of operation with spinal cord potential (SCP) monitoring: preoperative (A); after ﬁrst stage of operation (B); SCP monitor ﬁndings in ﬁrst stage of operation (C) Control 55mm A Pull Down Implant Prosthesis Reduction C B Fig. In such patients, implantation of the component at the level of the original ace- tabulum is recommended, while equalizing leg length through the improvement of static body balance. For patients with an extremely narrow acetabulum and slender femur, a technique for enlarging the hypoplastic structure with subsequent use of normal-sized components is advantageous. The method mentioned in this chapter is not suitable for all patients with a high dislocation of the hip joint, but it is indicated when preoperative CT scanning indi- cates the need for enlargement of the acetabulum and of the medullary canal. Selective enlargement of only the acetabulum or femoral side can be performed in selected instances. Sofue M, Dohmae Y, Endo N, et al (1989) Total hip arthroplasty for secondary osteo- arthritis due to congenital dislocation of the hip (in Japanese). Crowe JF, Mani J, Ranawat CS (1979) Total hip replacement in congenital dislocation and dysplasia of the hip. Eftekhar NS (1993) Congenital dysplasia and dislocation in total hip arthroplasty. Azuma T (1985) Preparation of the acetabulum to correct severe acetabular deﬁciency for total hip replacement—with special reference to stress distribution of periacetabu- lar region after operation (in Japanese). Yamamuro T (1982) Total hip arthroplasty for high dislocation of the hip (in Japanese). Harris WH, Crothers O, Indong AO, et al (1977) Total hip replacement and femoral- head bone-grafting for severe acetabular deﬁciency in adults. Nagai J, Ito T, Tanaka S, et al (1975) Combined acetabuloplasty for the socket stability by the total hip replacement in dislocated hip arthrosis (in Japanese). Buchholz HW, Baars G, Dahmen G (1985) Frueherfahrungen mit der Mini- Hueftgelenkstotalendoprothese (Modell “St Georg-Mini”) bei Dysplasie-Coxarthrose. Matsuno T (1989) Long-term follow-up study of total hip replacement with bone graft. Paavilainen T, Hoikka V, Solonen KA (1990) Cementless replacement for severely dysplastic or dislocated hip. Charnley J, Feagin JA (1973) Low-friction arthroplasty in congenital subluxation of hip. Kinoshita I, Hirano N (1985) Some problems about indication of total arthroplasty for secondary coxarthrosis (in Japanese). Kuroki Y (1986) Total hip arthroplasty for high dislocation of the hip joint (in Japanese). Kerboull M, Hamadouche M, Kerboull L (2001) Total hip arthroplasty for Crowe type IV developmental hip dysplasia. Inoue S (1983) Total hip arthroplasty for painful high dislocation of the hip in the adult (in Japanese). Kanehara, Tokyo, pp 257–266 A Biomechanical and Clinical Review: The Dall–Miles Cable System Desmond M. The Dall–Miles Cable System (Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ, USA) has been in clinical use since 1983. It was initially developed for reattachment of the greater trochanter in low-friction arthroplasty of the hip. It is now used largely as a cerclage system, par- ticularly in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A biomechanical review includes a comparison of the mechanical strength of different cerclage systems. The relationship between tensile strength and fatigue per- formance is analyzed, and comparative data are presented. A review of the clinical use of cable cerclage is presented, including ﬁxation of the greater trochanter in various trochanteric osteotomy approaches to the hip, the use of the system in revi- sion THA, femoral allografts, its use in ﬁxation of periprosthetic fractures of the femur in THA, and the use of the system in augmentation of other forms of fracture ﬁxation, emphasizing its value in the treatment of fractures in soft bone. Dall–Miles, Cable, Biomechanical, Clinical Introduction Cerclage systems have been used in many clinical situations, mainly to provide, or assist in, ﬁxation of bony fragments and occasionally of long bones.
Surgery and Traumatology purchase 5 ml fml forte free shipping allergy testing histamine control, the American Associ- His interest in their work and the development of ation for the Surgery of Trauma purchase discount fml forte on-line allergy forecast worcester ma, the Western Sur- the Mayo Clinic never lagged from that time until gical Association cheap fml forte 5 ml with visa allergy choices, the Minnesota State Medical his death. Association, of which he was President in 1932, During the years 1909–1911, Dr. Henderson and the Southern Minnesota Medical Association, worked as a surgical assistant to Dr. In 1910, looking to the honorary member of the Societas Orthopedica future, Dr. Such a Association in 1934: “We as specialists must ever move was proposed to the group, who, after due be on the alert to acquire knowledge pertaining to consideration, approved the idea. Jones and to visit Sir Harold Stiles in Edinburgh, during the year 1911. He returned to Rochester and resumed charge of organizing and directing the section of orthopedic surgery at the Mayo Clinic. Henderson’s experience was in a way unique in that he planned and organized and developed a section of orthopedic surgery in a rapidly growing clinic devoted to group 135 Who’s Who in Orthopedics Irish Journal of Medical Science. In 1925 he became a professor of surgery at the University of Cairo, a position he held for 11 years. On his return to England, Henry received additional dec- oration and an honorary degree from the govern- ment and the University of Egypt. During World War II, he was a teacher in the surgery department of the Postgraduate Medical School at Hammer- smith. In 1947, Henry returned to Dublin as a professor of anatomy at the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland until his retirement in 1959. In addition to his valuable and unique book, Henry made many original contributions to the surgical literature describing new procedures and original observations. In his later years, Henry became a beloved academic ﬁgure in the surgical and medical worlds of Dublin. Arnold Kirkpatrick HENRY 1886–1962 One of the jewels of orthopedic literature is a slim book of solid gold. Every page contains a nugget of valuable information, concisely written in an entertaining style. Arnold Kirkpatrick Henry’s Extensile Expo- sure Applied to Limb Surgery, ﬁrst published in 1927, has guided several generations of limb surgeons, making their work easier and safer. To many, Henry is thought of only as an anatomist, but he also was a general surgeon of the old school who felt at home operating anywhere between the scalp and the sole. He then enrolled in Trinity College, Dublin, from which he received his MB, BCh, and dBAO degrees in 1911. After additional postgraduate training in Dublin, he Charles Harbison HERNDON became a Fellow of the Royal College of Sur- geons of Ireland in 1914. During World War I, 1915–1997 Henry became a surgeon of the Serbian army. His wife, who was also a surgeon, served as his ﬁrst Born in 1915 in Dublin, Texas, Charlie Herndon assistant. In 1916 they both ﬂed to Great Britain received his undergraduate education at the Uni- because the German army invaded Serbia. The versity of Texas and earned his MD degree from Serbian government decorated Henry with the Harvard University in 1940. After pleted his surgical internship at the University joining the Royal Army Medical Corps, Henry Hospitals of Cleveland, he entered the United was posted in India for a short period before being States Army in 1941 as a First Lieutenant and sent to the French army from 1917 to 1919. For volunteered to serve at the American Hospital in this service Henry was made a Chevalier of the Oxford, England, under the direction of Philip D. He subsequently served in the to practice in Dublin where he also edited the Third and Twenty-third Station Hospitals and in 136 Who’s Who in Orthopedics the Second General Hospital throughout the Charlie served on numerous committees in the entire European campaign; he was discharged orthopedic community and participated in a wide with the rank of Major in January 1946. He range of interdisciplinary activities, as exempli- began his orthopedic residency at the Hospital for ﬁed by his presidency of the Council of Medical Special Surgery, then a small red-brick building Specialists Society in 1976. On completion many services to the Case Western Reserve Uni- of his residency in 1947, he returned to the Uni- versity Medical School, an endowed Chair of versity Hospitals of Case Western Reserve Uni- Orthopedics was established in his name in 1979. He established the ence to know and to be educated by Charlie ﬁrst full-time division of orthopedic surgery at Herndon, as generations of his residents can that institution in 1953; the division became a full attest. In relatively few years, his stern manner inspired the best from others, but stewardship had made possible the development there was no better teacher by precept or example. His Charles Harbison Herndon, MD of Cleveland, clinical interests were broad, as were those of Ohio, one of the most respected and inﬂuential most of his generation before the development of orthopedists of his generation, died on July 27, multiple orthopedic subspecialties. He was survived by author or coauthor of 57 publications, and he con- his wife, Kathryn Ann Blair (Kay), whom he tinued to write on a wide range of topics, partic- married in 1944; and two sons. The many honors and ofﬁces that were received or held by Charlie Herndon during his long and distinguished career were richly deserved and are too numerous to list exhaus- tively. Charlie served as a trustee of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery from 1969 to 1974; as a member of the American Orthopedic Associa- tion in 1955; and as President of the Orthopedic Research Society in 1957, of the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery from 1964 to 1966, of the Association of Orthopedic Chairmen in 1975, and of the American Academy of Orthopedic Sur- geons from 1967 to 1968. It was as President of the Academy that he made his most distinctive mark: under his guidance and direction, the prophetic National Health Plan for Orthopedics (NHPO) was developed. This was the ﬁrst such plan proposed by a national medical organization. It was typical of Charlie’s foresight that the idea of regular recertiﬁcation of orthopedists was ﬁrst Ernest William HEY GROVES proposed in the NHPO. This proposal caused an uproar among a small yet vociferous group of 1872–1944 orthopedists who vigorously attacked the concept. However, Charlie stuck to his guns like the Texan Hey Groves was the son of an English civil engi- that he was, and, with time, although not without neer, Edward Kennaway Groves, and was born in much travail, recertiﬁcation became the fact of India in 1872. Illustrating his taken the degree of Bachelor of Science, while resourcefulness, it is related that, on setting out still a student, he started his teaching career as a for Alexandria with other RAMC ofﬁcers, he demonstrator [“instructor” in the United States] found that none could go aboard ship unless of biology. This experience stood him in good properly dressed in spurs; whereupon he managed stead, for he later became an outstanding teacher to acquire a rusty pair at a marine store, and, of surgery. Following his graduation in 1895, his having himself embarked, tossed them ashore ﬁrst interests were in obstetrics and, after experi- repeatedly for the use of each of his colleagues in ence in different parts of England and a period of turn. But he did small group of surgeons who met together at not stay long in general practice. His search dinner at the Cafe Royal in London to consider for surgical knowledge and experience was what steps should be taken to found an associa- insatiable. At that time In 1896 he married Miss Frederica Anderson, Hey Groves did not regard himself as an ortho- who had been a nurse at St. Bartholomew’s, and pedic surgeon in the accepted sense of the term; together they made their home into a private hos- but, at the invitation of Robert Jones, he had pital. Here, with the help and encouragement of already entered the fold by taking surgical charge his wife, Hey Groves established his reputation as of the Military Orthopaedic Centre at Bristol. To his students he used to say that this intrusion into orthopedic surgery was viewed by episode in his life had its darker side, for tales certain purists of the Alder school with consider- were spread abroad that “Butcher Groves lured able misgiving, and, by a narrow doctrinaire women into his home, operated upon them, and interpretation of what constituted a “real” ortho- would not remove their stitches until they had pedic surgeon in the year 1917, his name was paid their money.
The most important is the activity level of the individual order fml forte 5 ml line allergy watch, and the next is the degree of insta- bility order fml forte 5 ml free shipping allergy relief radiance remedies, or degree of a-p translation discount 5 ml fml forte amex allergy shots covered by insurance. Nowadays, surgical treatment should not be reserved only for the “young, competitive, pivotal” athlete. With very active “mature” athletes, forty years of age is not a contraindica- Controversial Treatment Decisions 37 tion for surgery. The younger and more pivotal athlete, who wants to return to sport sooner may be a candidate for the patellar tendon graft. Shel- bourne has reported on return to sports at four months with a contra- lateral patellar tendon graft harvest. Older, more recreational athletes usually have a semitendinosus auto- graft graft or an allograft patellar tendon. There have been several authors, including Brandsson, who have reported positive results of ACL reconstruction in patients more than 40 years of age. Remember that the patellar tendon graft is for the surgeon, and the semitendinosus graft is for the patient. Immature Athlete Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in skeletally immature adolescents are being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Nonoperative manage- ment of midsubstance ACL injuries in adolescent athletes frequently results in a high incidence of giving-way episodes, recurrent meniscal tears, and early onset of osteoarthritis. In the past, the protocol has been to recommend conservative treatment until the growth plates have closed. Shelbourne has reported that an intra-articular ACL recon- struction (using the central 10-mm patellar tendon graft) in young athletes approaching skeletal maturity provides predictable excellent knee stability, and the athletes are able to return to competitive sports with a decreased risk of recurrent meniscal and/or chondral injury. The latter are treated in the usual fashion; the former are a treatment dilemma. The concern about ACL recon- struction in the athlete with open growth plates is that there will be premature fusion of the plate, growth arrest, and potential for angular deformities. DeLee and others have recommended procedures that avoid crossing the growth plates with tunnels. This type of procedure and other extra-articular operations, however, achieve less than satis- factory stability. Stadelmaier, Arnoczsky, and others have shown in the laboratory that a tunnel drilled centrally across the growth plate and ﬁlled with a tendon does not cause growth arrest of the epiphyseal plate. Based on this basic research, several clinicians have reported on a series of young patients with small central tunnels placed through both the femur and tibia and the semitendinosus graft. The tunnels are drilled centrally through the epiphysis and ﬁxed with a button on the periosteal surface. Treatment Options for ACL Injuries The two options to consider with the nine-year-old patient who tears his ACL is restriction of activity and the use of a brace until skeletal maturity. Then consider an intra-articular reconstruction versus an early reconstruction using the semitendinosus graft and button ﬁxation. ACL/MCL Injuries The management of the combined ACL/MCL injury is controversial. This is a common injury seen among skiers who catch an inside edge and externally rotate the knee. Shelbourne has advocated initial con- servative treatment of the MCL, followed by ACL reconstruction as indicated. Our current protocol at the Sports Medicine Clinic is to treat the MCL with an extension splint, or brace, until it is stable. Then the patient works to regain range of motion and strength, after which recon- struction of the ACL, if necessary, can be performed. After the medial collateral ligament heals, the degree of partial healing of the ACL is usually sufﬁciently stable for recreational activities. The dilemma occurs when there is residual laxity of both the MCL and the ACL. In this situation, the patient will have signiﬁcant symp- toms with pivotal activity. The treatment is a custom-made functional brace with double upright support. If there are still instability symptoms, reconstruction of the ACL must be performed. The course of the ligament may be picked with an awl to produce bleeding and microfracture of the ligament attachment. The attachment site of the MCL on the femur may be removed with an osteotomy and countersunk into the femur about 1cm to shorten the ligament. The posterior capsule is plicated to this post of retensioned liga- ment. In severe cases of laxity, the ligament is shortened and reinforced with an autograft or allograft of semitendinosus. A brace must be used in the postoperative protocol to protect this MCL reconstruction for a prolonged period. Osteoarthritis and the ACL Deﬁcient Knee There are three clinical presentations with combined ACL laxity and medial compartment osteoarthritis. The ﬁrst is the patient with prima- rily ACL laxity symptoms; that is, recurrent giving way and mild activ- ity related pain. The second is the patient with more severe osteoarthritis and ACL Nonoperative Management Protocol 39 laxity. The symptoms are pain and giving way associated with a varus knee and medial compartment narrowing on the standing X-rays. This patient should be managed with a combined ACL reconstruction and tibial osteotomy done at the same sitting. It is acceptable to stage the osteotomy as the initial procedure, followed by the ligament recon- struction six months later. The third scenario is the patient with advanced medial compartment osteoarthritis and residual ACL laxity. The injury usually is long standing; the knee is in varus, but lacks exten- sion. The closing wedge osteotomy of Coven- try has been the standard, but the opening wedge osteotomy is becom- ing popular. Nonoperative Management Protocol The nonoperative treatment of the acute injury consists of the following: Extension splint and crutches. The length of time on crutches will depend on the degree of associated meniscal capsular injury. Nautilus or gym program to strengthen the muscles with machines and to improve the cardiovascular ﬁtness with steppers and bikes. Note that Martinek has shown that knee bracing is not required after ACL reconstruction. The nonoperative program for the chronic ACL deﬁcient knee consists of the following: The use of a functional custom ﬁtted brace, such as the DonJoy Deﬁance brace. A progressive strengthening exercise program for the hamstrings and quadriceps conducted in a gym.
Evidencein cases where your teaching is challenged: in these days of increasing accountability and staff appraisal there may be occasions where the quality of your work is challenged buy 5 ml fml forte with amex allergy forecast austin kvue. Documentary evidence maintained by you in your portfolio may prove invaluable in defending your case order fml forte without a prescription allergy symptoms mosquito bite. Fosteringdiscussion and review of teaching: keeping a portfolio and encouraging others to do so will help to create an environment where discussion of teaching becomes the norm rather than an unusual practice in your department purchase 5 ml fml forte amex allergy treatment austin texas. Do remember that a teaching portfolio is a summary of your major teaching activities and accomplishments; it is an important adjunct to your curriculum vitae (CV). It is not intended that it include all the material listed in Figure 10. Accordingly, you should initially be comprehensive in your collection of information for your portfolio and then summarise the material when it is to be used for some external audience. Creating, assembling and using your portfolio The most important things to remember are to keep evidence of your teaching activities and to file away a copy of relevant materials, letters received, articles published, evaluations conducted, and so on, and that your portfolio is a summary. The evidence is the basis from which your portfolio is constructed and the source from which any statements you make in your portfolio can be verified. It is suggested that your portfolio might end up being between six and twelve pages long. Keep files of back-up material to follow the structure used in the portfolio. Remember, these materials are not part of the portfolio, but are evidence if required. Prepare brief statements of explanation against each of the criteria selected. You should also add your own brief evaluation of the item and the steps you have taken to modify your teaching in light of (say) feedback received. Finally, remember to constantly review your portfolio and keep it up to date. It is surprising how easy it is to forget the diverse teaching activities we undertake and the feedback we receive. Remember too that your portfolio is an important tool for learning about your teaching. Ensuring a trustworthy system of evaluation The final part of the framework for an evaluation system is ensuring that the system in place is ‘trustworthy’. We cannot go into much detail about this here, but the following quotation from Scholarship Assessed summarizes what we have in mind: “. Appropriate methods would be used and significant results would advance the institution and individual towards their goals. The process would be effectively presented and discussed as openly as possible in public forums. Finally, reflective critique would keep evaluation flexible and open to improvement over time. We do not expect that you will be able to change your institution’s policies and practices overnight. But, by talking about the characteristics of good evaluation with the right people, you will have an influence upon bringing about useful improvements for the advancement of learning and teaching. This book also explores evaluating research and service and so comple- ments Scholarship Assessed which is noted below. On portfolios, the most straightforward advice is contained in the original Canadian work on this subject by B. Another useful introduction to portfolios, which also considers their relationship to scholarship, is The Teaching Portfolio: Capturing the Scholarship of Teaching by R. If you are concerned to evaluate materials and educational technologies we suggest M. Tessmer, Planning and Conducting Formative Evaluations, Kogan Page, London, 1993. This is an interesting mixture of useful guidance on planning evaluations, evaluating materials, and the whole notion of formative evaluation. Hartley’s book is also helpful on evaluating materials; Designing Instructional Text, Kogan Page, London, 1994. Navigating student ratings of instruction, American Psychologist, November, 1198-1208. Scholarship Assessed, Evaluation of the Professoriate, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1997. Student ratings, the validity of use, American Psychologist, November, 1218-1225. Rewarding good teaching: A matter of demonstrated proficiency or documented achievement? This section of the book will identify various resources which might be helpful. BOOKS AND JOURNALS We have already provided selected readings at the end of each chapter. There are some other texts which may be of more general interest and which cover a wider range than the selected readings. On the principles of good teaching in higher education we suggest Teaching for Quality Learning at University by J. Biggs, SRHE and Open University Press, Buckingham, 1999 and Learning to Teach in Higher Education by P. An excellent introduction to the important concept of life long learning which covers a wide range of related teaching issues is Lifelong Learning in Higher Education by C. For those wishing to delve more deeply into aspects of medical education research there is now a major text entitled An International Handbook for Research in Medical Education by J. Articles relating to medical education appear regularly in most of the major general medical journals. There are also several journals specifically concerned with publishing research and review articles in the field of medical education. Medical Education This is the official journal of the Association for the Study of Medical Education (ASME), which is the organisation catering for individuals interested in medical education in the United Kingdom. The Association also produces an excellent series of booklets dealing with various aspects of medical education and has a series on medical education research. As well as containing articles relating to teaching, this journal also deals with the broader issues of the organisation of medical education as it relates to the United States. It also publishes the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Research in Medical Education which is the world’s premier medical education research meeting. Medical Teacher This journal is now published in collaboration with the Association for Medical Education in Europe. Rather, it has been a journal containing review articles and descriptions of educational activities by medical teachers from around the world.
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