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Related to the above issue order cheap fucidin line virus 792012, there is also a lack of evidence on the effects of bioimpedance monitoring on the number order fucidin without a prescription antimicrobial properties of garlic, and the duration discount fucidin 10 gm amex bacteria science fair projects, of dialysis sessions required to achieve the prescribed target weight. A potential cost-saving could be achieved through a requirement for fewer dialysis sessions in some incident patients, if it is found to be effective in preserving residual renal function. As discussed above, this question remains currently unanswered. Conversely, the use on bioimpedance spectroscopy could result indirectly in increased dialysis costs through identification of patients that are severely overhydrated and require longer or additional dialysis sessions to achieve their new target weight without exceeding safe ultrafiltration rates and volumes. Resource use estimation The base-case cost-effectiveness model incorporates health service costs associated with maintenance dialysis, blood pressure medication and ESAs (on dialysis), all-cause inpatient hospitalisation, renal transplantation (including work-up, surgery and follow-up), post-transplantation immunosuppression and outpatient visits (all expressed in 2014–15 pounds sterling). Costs of renal replacement therapy It has previously been noted that dialysis treatment for CKD results in high costs to the health service, and that this can undermine the cost-effectiveness of technologies that prolong survival on dialysis. In some circumstances, a technology that prolongs survival for patients receiving dialysis may not be cost-effective at a price of zero. This has led to inconsistency across economic evaluations in the area of ESRD with respect to whether or not dialysis costs are included. Some have argued that they should not be included for interventions that aim to extend survival without impacting the need for dialysis. It may then seem unfair to include dialysis costs when they act as an insurmountable barrier to demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of other technologies that prolong survival on dialysis. The alternative argument is that dialysis costs do represent a real opportunity cost associated with ongoing treatment for ESRD, and thus should be included in the analysis. The NICE Decision Support Unit has produced a report on assessing technologies that are not cost-effective at a price of zero, and this suggests that all NHS and Personal Social Services costs that differ between the technology being appraised and the comparator technologies should be included within the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), as this provides the ICER that reflects the real opportunity cost of recommending the technology being appraised. A similar argument was adopted in the modelling assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative phosphate binders for people with stages 4 and 5 CKD with hyperphosphataemia. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 43 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. ASSESSMENT OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS dialysis were argued to be unaffected and unrelated to the choice of phosphate binder, with the target condition being hyperphosphataemia. Considering the above, it is difficult to argue that dialysis costs are unrelated to a technology being used to guide fluid management decisions in patients receiving dialysis, and in theory the use of the technology could have an impact on dialysis costs in survivors, as well as prolong survival on dialysis. Therefore, dialysis costs are included in our base-case cost-effectiveness scenarios. However, it is a plausible argument that the cost-effectiveness of dialysis reflected in our model does not capture its broader value to society, relating to ethics and equity issues. Therefore, we also explored the impact of excluding dialysis costs. Dialysis costs were taken from the current NHS reference costs. This was multiplied by three sessions per week, and then by 52 to estimate the average annual cost of maintenance HD. For PD, we applied the weighted average of the reference costs (per day) for HRG codes LD11A to LD13A. These costs were multiplied by 365 to estimate total annual maintenance PD costs. Transplantation costs were also taken from the reference costs, applying the average costs for HRG codes LA01A, LA02A and LA03A (elective inpatient). We also included costs for follow-up post transplantation. For the initiation period, we costed basiliximab [(Simulect®, Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd, Frimley, UK) day 0 and day 4], prednisolone [(Concordia International, Oakville, ON, Canada) 60 mg per day], mycophenolate mofetil [(Cellcept®, Roche Products Limited, Welwyn Garden City, UK) 1 g twice daily] and tacrolimus [5 mg twice daily (we used the average list price of Adoport®, Sandoz Ltd, Frimley, Camberley, Surrey, UK; Prograf®, Astellas Pharma Ltd, Chertsey, UK; and Advagraf®, Astellas Pharma Ltd, Chertsey, UK)]. For the maintenance period, we costed prednisolone (7. Beyond year 1 post transplant, we applied maintenance immunosuppression costs and added average outpatient costs observed in the transplant cohort (see Outpatient costs below). The maintenance dialysis and transplantation costs are provided in Table 10. TABLE 10 Maintenance dialysis and transplantation costs Quartile Parameter Resource use item Cost (£) Lower Upper distribution Source HD per session 154 130 169 Gamma NHS Reference Costs 2014 to 2015124 PD per day 69 50 69 Gamma NHS Reference Costs 2014 to 2015124 Transplant 14,915 11,720 17,797 Gamma NHS Reference Costs 2014 to 2015124 Follow-up post transplant (year 1)a 11,204 Treharne et al. The second part of this model predicts annual inpatient costs conditional on experiencing any hospitalisation event(s) within a given year. Estimates are based on age, sex, years on dialysis (or years following transplant), dialysis modality and the comorbidity status of the modelled cohort. The model also accounts for increased costs in the year of death and the year preceding deaths that occur in the first half of the following year. This reflects the increasing level of morbidity experienced by patients towards the end of life. To generate estimates of the cost incurred per hospitalisation event rather than costs per year, the predicted annual cost is divided by the expected number of events per patient-year in our model. The expected event rate is derived from the estimated annual probability of experiencing any hospital inpatient event, assuming a constant event rate across the year. This results in a cost per hospitalisation event that varies by the underlying characteristics of the modelled cohort, but comes to ≈ £4500 per event for patients receiving HD and £4300 per event for patients receiving PD. These estimates are substantially higher than costs per hospitalisation event that have been applied in previous models in the area of 17 97 98, , ESRD. However, these previous models generally applied averages of aggregate reference costs. The estimates derived from the data reported by Li et al. Alternative estimates are applied in a sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, as the above approach makes a simplifying structural assumption of one hospitalisation event per quarter, it will actually slightly underestimate annual inpatient hospital costs as predicted by the published two-part model of Li et al. A further limitation of the inpatient cost models reported by Li et al. Thus, our base-case model assumes that both CV and other cause-related hospitalisation events incur the same cost on average. A further uncertainty relates to the fact that some inpatient costs will be unrelated to ESRD. The inclusion of all-cause hospitalisation as an outcome in a number of the bioimpedance trials further justifies the inclusion of all-cause hospitalisation events in the baseline model. Outpatient costs Total outpatient costs for dialysis and transplant patients were also included in the base-case model. These were taken simply as the observed annual outpatient costs on dialysis and transplant as reported by Li et al.
WHO Strategy on Health Policy and Systems Research The WHO Strategy on Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) order fucidin 10 gm amex bacteria kingdom characteristics, launched in November 2012 buy cheap fucidin antibiotic resistance using darwin's theory, was shaped by the Alliance on Health Policy and Systems Research generic 10gm fucidin with visa antibiotic 1st generation. The strategy explains how the evolving field of health policy and systems research (Box 2. As the first- ever global strategy in this area, it represents a milestone in the evolution of HPSR. First, it seeks to unify the worlds of research and decision-making and connect the various research disciplines that generate knowledge on health systems. Second, it contributes to a broader under- standing of the field by clarifying the scope and role of HPSR and providing insights into the dynamic processes through which HPSR evidence is generated and used in decision-making. Third, the strategy is intended to serve as an agent for change, advocating close collaboration between researchers and decision-makers as an alternative to working in parallel. The strategy document outlines several actions by which stakeholders can facilitate evidence-informed decision- making and strengthen health systems. Some of these actions are reflected in the main text of this chapter. These mutually complementary options support the embedding of research into decision-making processes and promote national and global investment in HPSR. National governments may choose to pursue some or all of these actions on the basis of their individual needs and available resources. International information from the repository of data. Tese ideas form part of the ing points in setting targets for research fund- continuing debate about how to promote R&D ing (121). Accordingly, the 1990 Commission on for health in low-income countries (126). Health Research for Development suggested that Monitoring provides opportunities to coor- each nation should spend at least 2% of national dinate research activities: information-sharing, health expenditure on “essential national health network-building and collaboration are essen- research” (120). A more recent recommendation tial ingredients of coordination. The advantages is that “developing” countries should commit of coordination lie in jointly developing solu- 0. However, there are disadvan- countries should commit 0. One dilemma in coordination is how government-funded health research (121). Te to provide opportunities to make research more choice of benchmarks is discretionary but should effective – for instance by seeking to be com- be commensurate with achieving, or at least lie plementary and to avoid duplication – without on a trajectory to, universal health coverage. At its least complicated, coordination is National and international facilitated simply by sharing information. Te governance of health research observatory Orphanet, for example, is a refer- ence portal that provides information on rare One may ask whether the health research system diseases and orphan drugs (127). On a diferent in any country is efectively governed and man- level, coordination might entail the joint setting aged – i. Systematic evalu- such as interventions to control noncommunica- ations of research governance are valuable but ble diseases (37). In one of the few examples, eight indicators zation, there might be joint research projects, of governance and management were used to for example to test new tools for prevention or assess the national health research systems of 10 treatment at sites in several countries. Examples countries in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean are the coordinated evaluation of MenAfriVac Region (Fig. Eight aspects of governance and management of the national health research systems (NHRS) in 10 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region Management and governance National health priorities Statement of aims for NHRS Formal NHRS governance structure Formal NHRS management structure National health research priorities National health research policy/plan/strategy Statement of values for NHRS Monitoring and evaluation system for NHRS Source: Kennedy et al. On the basis of these indicators, it parts of the system that need most attention vary was clear that the 10 countries difered greatly from one country to another. Te conclusion of in their research capabilities and that the best this overview therefore highlights one aspect of performers among them were Lebanon, Oman each function that is important for all national and Tunisia. Similar evaluations have been car- health research systems. Te best kind of efort is needed to set national health research governance ensures that all key functions of a priorities, as distinct from setting priorities for research system are carried out within a regula- selected health topics. However, it is the people who do research – with their curiosity, Conclusions: building imagination, motivation, technical skills, expe- rience and connections – who are most critical efective research systems to the success of the research enterprise. Te four functions of an efective research Tird, codes of practice, which are the corner- system – setting priorities, building capacity, stone of any research system, are already in use in setting standards, and translating evidence into many countries. However, they need to be further practice – are in various stages of development developed and adapted to new settings and new 118 Chapter 4 Building research systems for universal health coverage circumstances. An important task ahead is to support is provided by three mechanisms: moni- ensure adherence to nationally and internation- toring, coordination and fnancing. One way to ally agreed standards in the conduct of research. A function of observatories is to order to reach universal health coverage, there is aid coordination, through information-sharing a particular need to close the gap between exist- and by facilitating collaborative research studies. To help close this Observatories can also monitor fnancial fows gap, research should be strengthened, not only for research and can help ensure that there is in academic centres, but also in public health adequate funding to support research on global programmes close to the supply of and demand and national priorities. In view of what has already been achieved in Apart from considering how research is research, the next task is to identify what actions done, especially within countries, this chap- can be taken to build more efective research sys- ter has also outlined methods for supporting tems. Chapter 5 proposes a set of actions based research, nationally and internationally. A checklist for health research priority setting: nine common themes of good practice. Overview of research activities associated with the World Health Organization: results of a survey covering 2006/07. A health systems research mapping exercise in 26 low- and middle-income countries: narratives from health systems researchers, policy brokers and policy-makers. UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). Research capacity build- ing in developing countries. Planning, monitoring and evaluation framework for capacity strengthening in health research. Indicators of sustainable capacity building for health research: analysis of four African case studies. London, Department for International Development, 2010. Cairo, World Health Organization Regional Ofce for the Eastern Mediterranean, 2004. Health policy and systems research: a methodological reader.
Mutations cyclics and SSRIs) or by blocking enzymatic degradation of conferring resistance to the induction of nose contraction serotonin (MAO inhibitors) discount fucidin 10gm mastercard bacteria description. Thus buy discount fucidin 10gm online treatment for dogs coughing and gagging, the therapeutic actions by fluoxetine have been identified in seven genes generic fucidin 10gm without prescription virus that attacks the heart, designated of all of these molecules are usually explained in terms of Nrf genes, for nose resistant to f luoxetine (26). All the Nrf a model for depression known as the serotonin hypothesis. So far, two Nrf genes have been cloned, nrf-6 and experienced by depressed patients could be a consequence ndg-4. These two genes define the first members of a novel of chronically low serotoninergic transmission, which could gene family, and encode predicted multipass integral mem- be compensated for by interfering with serotonin degrada- brane proteins that are expressed in the nasal epidermis and tion. This serotonin hypothesis, or variations thereof, repre- the intestine. Based on this result, it is reasonable antidepressants. For one, a direct correlation between the to suppose that the fluoxetine resistance of nrf-6 and ndg- level of serotoninergic transmission and mood has not been 4 mutants might reflect a defect in drug uptake rather than demonstrated; normal individuals treated with serotonin the absence of a functional drug target in the neuromuscular reuptake blockers do not typically experience euphoria, nor system. However, while NRF-6 and NDG-4 (and by exten- does dietary serotonin depletion induce depression in indi- sion their yet unidentified vertebrate homologues) may not viduals not already prone to depression (23). Moreover, represent antidepressant targets per se, they might represent the mood-altering effects of serotonin reuptake blockers in molecules that function in transport of antidepressants depressed patients occur on a different time scale from their across the blood–brain barrier. Finally, a number of effective antidepressants appear gain of function mutations that impaired the activity of to function independently from serotonin, including selec- the vulval muscles (which mediate egg laying) and enteric tive norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as de- muscles (which mediate defecation) (27,28). Both of these sipramine, MK869, which antagonizes substance P recep- defects in muscle activation could be relieved by treatment tors, and bupropion, whose target is unknown (24,25). Thus, imipramine appeared to act esize that SSRIs are effective against depression not because through a serotonin-independent target to suppress the egl- of their acute effects on serotoninergic transmission, but 2 muscle activation phenotype (29). The nature of this tar- because of long-term adaptive changes in monoamine neu- get was revealed when egl-2 was cloned and shown to encode rotransmission that arise from chronic inhibition of seroto- a potassium channel homologous to the Drosophila ether- nin reuptake (21). An appealing feature of this type of model a-go-go (eag) channel (30). Studies on EGL-2 channels ex- is that long-term activation of different direct targets by pressed in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that the imipra- different classes of antidepressants (the serotonin transporter mine-suppressible dominant alleles of egl-2 encoded mutant by SSRIs, other targets by atypical antidepressants) could channels that opened inappropriately at low voltages. Re- in principle lead to a common set of adaptive responses in markably, imipramine was shown to function as a specific the brain. Alternatively, it is possible that antidepressants antagonist of both the EGL-2 channel and its mammalian might act, at least in part, at serotonin-independent direct homologue MEAG. Interestingly, an im- serotonin-dependent and -independent activities of antide- portant side effect of tricyclic antidepressants is a type of pressants. Nearly all antidepressants have at least two clear cardiac arrhythmia called long QT syndrome, a disorder effects on C. Thus, the blockade of eag-related po- ulation of egg laying by antidepressants is primarily due to tassium channels by tricyclics provides a likely explanation potentiation of serotoninergic transmission (see below), the for this clinically important side effect of tricyclics. The potency of a given volatile anesthetic shows a potentiate serotoninergic neurotransmission (29), and can very strong correlation to its lipid solubility; this observa- be mimicked by exogenous serotonin itself (31). Serotonin tion, known as the Meyer–Overton rule, has led to the is released from egg-laying motor neurons called HSNs (27), hypothesis that volatile anesthetics act by disrupting hydro- and appears to function as a neuromodulator that modifies phobic interactions between proteins and/or lipids in neu- the functional state of the egg-laying muscles to potentiate rons. However, the biologically relevant targets for volatile contraction (32). Serotonin also inhibits locomotion, appar- anesthetics have not been conclusively identified. In princi- ently by inhibiting neurotransmitter release from excitatory ple, this problem appears ideally suited to attack by a pheno- motor neurons (32,33). The signal transduction mecha- type-driven genetic approach; by identifying mutants that nisms that mediate both of these actions of serotonin have are resistant or hypersensitive to anesthetics and cloning been analyzed genetically, and in both cases the phospholi- and sequencing the mutant genes, it should be possible to pase C (PLC) homologue egl-8 is required for serotonin identify anesthetic targets that are essential for anesthesia response. In the egg-laying muscles, the effects of PLC ap- in vivo. In fact, such screens have been conducted in both pear to be mediated through the protein kinase C homo- Drosophila and C. At present, none of tant mediator appears to be the diacylglycerol-binding the Drosophila anesthetic response genes have been cloned; synaptic protein UNC-13. The involvement of the phos- thus, molecular information about their gene products is phoinositide signaling pathway in serotonin signal transduc- not available. At lower concentrations (similar to the alveolar con- ways mediating serotonin response in C. Although this effect is behaviorally quite dissimilar netic analysis in C. As noted previously, the allevia- from anesthesia, it is similar to the effect of many mutations tion of depression by serotonin-potentiating antidepressants that affect synaptic transmission in C. In fact, treat- is thought to involve adaptive signaling pathways that are ment with volatile anesthetics confers resistance to the be- activated by prolonged elevation of serotoninergic neuro- havioral effects of cholinesterase inhibitors (38), a hallmark transmission. Thus, at these con- has been shown to lead to adaptive down-regulation of egg- centrations, volatile anesthetics appear to act presynaptically laying behavior and recovery from serotonin-induced paral- to interfere with synaptic transmission in C. Genes encoding possible components of serotonin ber of mutants with altered sensitivity to these low-concen- adaptation pathways have been identified on the basis of tration effects of volatile anesthetics have been identified. Future nents of the SNARE complex, the presynaptic machinery analysis of serotonin adaptation genes may provide insight that mediates synaptic vesicle fusion. Recessive mutations into the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term re- in at least three SNARE genes, unc-64 [encoding C. Furthermore, a novel mutation Volatile Anesthetics in unc-64, which affects a spice receptor site and conse- A variety of volatile molecules, including diethyl ether, halo- quently leads to the production of truncated syntaxin pep- thane, and isoflurane, are capable of inducing general anes- tides, confers strong resistance to the effects of volatile anes- thesia, a behavioral state involving loss of consciousness, thetics on both coordinated movement and cholinesterase analgesia, amnesia, and loss of motor activity. These results suggest that volatile anes- these agents have been widely used in surgery for over a thetics interfere with synaptic transmission through direct century, their mechanism of action remains poorly under- interaction with one or more members of the SNARE com- stood. General anesthesia appears to result from defects in plex. Interest- ber of receptors and channels, including the N-methyl-D- ingly, none of the synaptic mutations affecting the low- aspartate (NMDA), serotonin, and -aminobutyric acid concentration effects on coordinated movements affect this (GABA) receptors and various voltage-gated ion channels, high-concentration paralytic response. However, a different, appear to be modulated by the presence of ethanol (45). Several of these genes have been cloned, in- choactive effects of ethanol; however, a variety of experi- cluding unc-1, which encodes a homologue of stomatin ments in cultured cells suggest that a critical short-term (41), and unc-8, which encodes a subunit of the degenerin/ effect of ethanol is to enhance receptor-mediated synthesis ENaC family of passive sodium channels (42,43). Both unc- of the second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophos- 1 and unc-8 are expressed in neurons, and both genes can phate (cAMP). Conversely, long-term ethanol exposure ap- be mutated to confer either resistance or hypersensitivity to pears to decrease intracellular cAMP levels. Allele-specific genetic interactions between and chronic effects of ethanol have also been linked to unc-1, unc-8, and the yet uncloned unc-79 and unc-80 genes changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission (46). In partic- suggest that their products may physically interact in a mul- ular, ethanol has been shown to promote release of dopa- timeric channel complex specifically involved in anesthetic mine in the mesolimbic pathways of the brain, in particular responses. Since stomatin has been shown to function as the so-called reward pathway synapses between the ventral a negative regulator of cation channels in erythrocytes, a tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc).
Adding to this complexity buy cheap fucidin 10 gm on-line antibiotics diverticulitis, These patterns suggest that synaptic localization is partially mGluR 1 has four splice variants buy generic fucidin line antibiotic list, whereas mGluR 4 and 5 segregated by mGluR group (99) purchase fucidin on line antibiotics good or bad, with group I primarily each have two. The mGluRs within a group exhibit greater perisynaptic, surrounding the postsynaptic density, group than 70% sequence homology, whereas the homology falls II primarily presynaptic or extrasynaptic, and group III opti- to approximately 45% between groups (82). These synaptic distribution patterns position mGluRs transmembrane domains separated by short intracellular to play a critical role in modulating excitatory neurotrans- and extracellular loops and an unusually large extracellular mission. Group I mGluRs stimulate phospholipase C and the hy- In further contradistinction to other GPCRs, the agonist drolysis of phosphoinositide. These two receptors have been binding sites for the mGluRs are located in the extracellular reported to stimulate cAMPformation in different model domain. As a family, mGluRs are broadly expressed in the systems (106). They also increase the excitability of neurons nervous system, with group I having primarily a postsynap- currents, through a mechanism that by reducing the K tic localization, whereas groups II and III primarily have a appears to be independent of G-protein action (107). Al- presynaptic localization where they serve as autoreceptors though the AMPA receptor agonist, quisqualic acid, is the 76 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress most potent agonist at the group I mGluRs, 3,5-dihydroxy- traordinary gradients with the extracellular concentration phenylglycine (3,5-DHPG) is the most specific agonist. Energy deprivation not only collapses the so- pharmacology. The group porter, thereby inhibiting glutamate uptake, but also results III mGluRs inhibit adenylyl cyclase via GI-protein, al- in reverse transport with massive efflux of glutamate stores though they may utilize other transduction mechanisms. Pharmacologic inhibition of glutamate transport in The most specific agonist at group I mGluRs appears to tissue culture models has been shown to promote excitotoxic be 2R, 4R-4-aminio pyrrolidine-2, 4 dicarboxylate neurodegeneration (118). LY354740 is an exceptionally potent and selective Early pharmacologic studies pointed to the existence of agonist at group II mGluRs and is effective with systemic subtypes of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters in administration (108). Notably, N-acetylaspartyl glutamate brain with cerebellum exhibiting a form that is much more (NAAG), an endogenous neuropeptide, is a relatively potent sensitive to inhibition by L- -aminoadipate and forebrain agonist at mGluR 3, although it also serves as an antagonist sensitive to dihydrokainate (119). L-aminophosphonobutyric heterogeneity as well as the diverse cellular distribution of acid (L-AP4) is the most potent and selective agonist at the the sodium-dependent glutamate transporters have been il- group III mGluRs with the exception of mGluR 7, where luminated recently by their cloning and molecular charac- L-serine-O-phosphate has greater potency. EAAT 1 or GLAST has its highest expression in macology of these receptors remains less well developed than brain but is also found in peripheral tissue and placenta. The cerebellum appears to have the highest level within The heterogeneity of the mGluRs and their role in mod- brain, depending on the species. EAAT 2 (GLT 1) is primar- ulating glutamatergic neurotransmission make them attrac- ily expressed in brain, although low levels have been re- tive potential therapeutic targets for drug development. Its associated with protection against excitotoxicity, whereas expression is predominantly if not exclusively astroglial in activation of group I mGluRs may actually enhance NMDA localization. The predominant neuronal transporter is receptor-mediated neuronal degeneration (110,111). Re- EAAT 3, which is also expressed in kidney and to a lesser cently it has been shown that inhibition of GCPII, the extent in other peripheral tissues. Consistent with the broad enzyme that degrades the selective mGluR 3 agonist NAAG, distribution of glutamatergic neuronal systems in brain, the provides potent protection against neuronal degeneration levels of EAAT 3 are fairly uniform. EAAT 3 is not consis- caused by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery tently expressed in all glutamatergic systems, and some non- (112). A similar reciprocal relationship has been observed glutamatergic systems express it (122). Thus, EAAT 3 does with regard to the effects on epilepsy with group I agonists not appear to be a specific marker for glutamatergic neurons. Finally, metabotropic receptors, both in the 4, which is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells; and EAAT dorsal root and thalamus, have been implicated in modulat- 5, which is limited to the retina. A double- label postembedding immunogold study demonstrated the The demonstration of sodium-dependent high-affinity value of such ultrastructural data for revealing the impor- transport of glutamate in synaptosomal preparations was tance of differential distribution of these proteins with re- the first evidence supporting the hypothesis that glutamate spect to the synapse (44). The double-label analysis targeted serves as a neurotransmitter (115). The presence of these the AMPA subunit GluR2 and the glutamate transporter, transporters on excitatory nerve terminals was exploited to EAAT3 (i. This study revealed differential spatial distribution fibers of the cerebellum through the autoradiographic visu- of these two proteins very clearly. At the light microscopic alization of retrogradely transported radiolabel in axons and level, as expected, GluR2 was broadly colocalized with cell bodies. The transporters are capable of maintaining ex- EAAC1 in hippocampal projection neurons, and both pro- Chapter 6: L-Glutamic Acid in Brain Signal Transduction 77 teins had substantial cytoplasmic pools. However, the post- GLT-1 and GLAST in the innervation field (131). The embedding immunogold localization offered additional in- neuronal signal mediating this interaction has proved to be sights into the spatial relationships between EAAT3 and somewhat elusive but may in fact be glutamate itself acting GluR2 localization in and near the synapse, revealing mor- at AMPA/KA receptors on astrocytes. PKC has also been phologic and molecular constraints on excitatory synaptic implicated in the regulation of glutamate transporter activ- transmission. Specifically, synaptic GluR2 was present pri- ity both directly and by altering trafficking (136). EAAT3 was not intermingled with GluR2 postsynaptically, but was GLUTAMATE AND GLIA generally present perisynaptically, often immediately out- side the synaptic specialization, with a small but significant The neuroprotective action of glutamate transporters ex- presynaptic pool as well (44). This arrangement positions pressed by astroglia represents only one facet of the critical EAAT3 to both confine glutamate to the synaptic site that role astroglia play in modulating glutamatergic neurotrans- contains the inotropic receptor molecules, as well as to regu- mission. Astrocytes express a high-affinity Na -dependent late its levels in immediately adjacent presynaptic and post- transporter for glycine, GlyT-1, which maintains concentra- synaptic domains. This distribution is also interesting with tions of glycine that are subsaturating for its modulatory respect to the distribution of mGluRs, which are located site (Kd 20 nM) on the NMDA receptor in spite of perisynaptically and extrasynaptically (see the preceding). In addition, This suggests that EAAT3 is also optimally positioned to forebrain astroglia express serine racemase, which generates regulate the exposure of perisynaptic and presynaptic D-serine, a potent agonist at the glycine modulatory site mGluRs to glutamate (44). The metabolism of tryptophan by a series of enzymes The EAATs exhibit affinities for glutamate in the low expressed in glia generates both positive and negative modu- M range, two orders of magnitude more avid than the lators of the NMDA receptor (134). Of these, quinolinic vesicular transporter for glutamate, which is not sodium acid is an agonist at NMDA receptors. A generally accepted model for transport in- for the receptor is relatively low, lack of efficient clearance volves the binding of three Na , one H , and glutamic mechanisms renders it a pathophysiologically significant acid, which is linked to the counter transport of one K NMDA receptor agonist. In addition, there is increasing evidence that individ- achieve toxic concentrations in HIV encephalopathy with ual EAAT subtypes may also subserve signal transduction the activation of microglia and infiltration of macrophages activity; thus, EAATs have been implicated in inhibition highly expressing quinoline (135). Kynurenic acid, another of adenylyl cyclase, altering Ca2 levels and Cl flux by metabolite of tryptophan, is a noncompetitive antagonist mechanisms independent of glutamate transport (121). The synthesis of kynurenic acid in brain takes place excitotoxic effects in tissue culture (118). Mice homozygous almost exclusively in astrocytes and is regulated by cellular for the nul mutation of EAAT 2 develop fatal epilepsy and energy status, ionic environment, local 2-oxo acid concen- exhibit increased vulnerability to excitotoxic insults (125), tration, and dopaminergic neurotransmission (136). Altered and mice homozygous for the nul mutation for EAAT 1 levels of kynurenic acid in disease states such as Hunting- exhibit cerebellar dysfunction (126). In this well-characterized nonglutamatergic systems such as the regard, astroglial processes are tightly interdigitated with locus ceruleus and motor neurons. Postmor- transcriptional as well as posttranslational mechanisms. Furthermore, NMDA receptors (140), and increased activity in motor subsequent destruction of the neurons results in down-regu- cortex and dorsal horn, which would increase extracellular lation of GLT-1 but an up-regulation of GLAST protein glutamate generated from NAAG in the neurodegenerative (130). Fornix transection results in down-regulation of both disorder ALS (141).
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