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Diseases Characterized by Urethritis and Cervicitis Management of Male Patients Who Have Urethritis Urethritis can result from infectious and noninfectious conditions buy generic medrol from india arthritis treatments and cures. If Gram stain is not available purchase medrol 4 mg without a prescription arthritis in the back ribs, patients should be treated for both gonorrhea and chlamydia discount medrol 16mg fast delivery rheumatoid arthritis cervical spine. Culture and hybridization tests require urethral swab specimens, whereas amplification tests can be performed on urine specimens. Because of their higher sensitivity, amplification tests are preferred for the detec- tion of C. It is highly sensitive and specific for documenting both urethritis and the presence or absence of gonococcal infection. If none of these criteria are present, treatment should be deferred, and the patient should be tested for N. Management of Patients Who Have Nongonococcal Urethritis Diagnosis All patients who have confirmed or suspected urethritis should be tested for gonor- rhea and chlamydia. Azithromycin and doxycycline are highly effective for chlamydial urethritis; however, infections with M. Skolnik beyond 3 months leads to the possibility of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men. Recurrent and Persistent Urethritis Consider retreatment if a patient did not finish the initial treatment or may have been reexposed to infection. Some cases of recurrent urethritis after doxycycline treatment might be caused by tetracycline-resistant U. If the patient was compliant with the initial regimen and reexposure can be excluded, the following regimen is recommended. In the absence of inflammatory vaginitis, leukorrhea might be a sensitive indicator of cer- vical inflammation with a high negative predictive value. Etiology When an etiologic organism is isolated in the setting of cervicitis, it is typically C. For reasons that are unclear, cervicitis can persist despite repeated courses of antimicrobial therapy. Because the majority of persistent cases of cervicitis are not caused by relapse or reinfection with C. Management of Sex Partners Sex partners of women treated for cervicitis should be treated. Patients and their sex partners should abstain from sexual intercourse until therapy is completed (i. Chlamydial Infections Chlamydial Infections in Adolescents and Adults In the United States, chlamydial genital infection is the most frequently reported infectious disease, and the prevalence is highest in persons aged younger than 25 years. Asymptomatic infection is common among both men and women, and to detect chlamydial infections, healthcare providers frequently rely on screening tests. Annual screening of all sexually active women aged younger than 25 years is recommended, as is screening of older women with risk factors (e. However, screening of sexually active young men should be considered in clinical settings with a high prevalence of chlamydia (e. Treatment of sex partners helps to prevent reinfection of the index patient and infection of other partners. Clinicians and healthcare agencies should consider advising all women with chlamydial infec- tion to be retested approximately 3 months after treatment. Providers also are strongly encouraged to retest all women treated for chlamydial infection whenever they next seek medical care within the following 3 to 12 months, regardless of whether the patient thinks that her sex partners were treated. Limited evidence is available regard- ing the benefit of retesting for chlamydia in men previously infected; however, some specialists suggest retesting men approximately 3 months after treatment. Management of Sex Partners Patients should be instructed to refer their sex partners for evaluation, testing, and treatment. Sex partners should be evaluated, tested, and treated if they had sexual contact with the patient during the 60 days preceding onset of symptoms in the patient or diagnosis of chlamydia. The most recent sex partner should be evaluated and treated, even if the time of the last sexual contact was more than 60 days before symptom onset or diagnosis. Skolnik If concerns exist that sex partners will not seek evaluation and treatment, then delivery of antibiotic therapy (either a prescription or medication) by heterosexual male or female patients to their partners might be an option (see Partner Management). Patients should be instructed to abstain from sexual intercourse until they and their sex partners have completed treatment. Abstinence should be continued until 7 days after a single-dose regimen or after completion of a 7-day regimen. Timely treatment of sex partners is essential for decreasing the risk for reinfecting the index patient. Repeat testing 3 weeks after com- pletion of therapy with the following regimens is recommended for all pregnant women to ensure therapeutic cure, considering the sequelae that might occur in the mother and neonate if the infection persists. The frequent gastrointestinal side effects associated with erythromycin might discourage patient compliance with the alternative regimens. The lower-dose 14-day erythromycin regimens may be considered if gastrointestinal tolerance is a concern. The prevalence of gonorrhea infection varies widely among communities and patient populations. Diagnostic Considerations A Gram stain of a male urethral specimen that demonstrates polymorphonuclear leukocytes with intracellular gram-negative diplococci can be considered diagnostic for infection with N. A negative Gram stain should not be considered sufficient for excluding infection in asymptomatic men. In making the diagnosis of gonorrhoeae, it is important to know the indications and the limitations of the available tests at your clinical site. Dual Therapy for Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infections Patients treated for gonococcal infection should also be treated routinely with a regimen that is effective against uncomplicated genital C. Only one class of antibiotics, the cephalosporins, is still recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea. Beginning in 2000, fluoroquinolones were no longer recommended for gonorrhea treatment in persons who acquired their infections in Asia or the Pacific Islands (including Hawaii); in 2002, this recommendation was extended to California. Some evidence indicates that 400mg cefpodoxime and 1g cefuroxime axetil might be oral alternatives. Patients who have symptoms that persist after treatment should be evaluated by culture for N. Clinicians should consider advising all patients with gonorrhea to be retested 3 months after treatment. If patients do not seek medical care for retesting in 3 months, providers are encouraged to test these patients whenever they next seek medical care within the following 12 months. Management of Sex Partners Sex partners within 60 days of treatment or the index patients last sexual partner, should be referred for evaluation and treatment.
Onset is 10 minutes to Because of cyclopeptides and amatoxins con- 2hoursafterconsumptionandsymptomsusu- sumed in Amanita phalloides (death cap) best order medrol rheumatoid arthritis pregnancy, allyresolveover12hours order generic medrol from india arthritis medication generic. The advice of a regional poisons centre is vital for both inves- Paralytic shellsh poisoning tigation and treatment cheap medrol 16mg without a prescription arthritis pain relief as seen on tv. Causes neurological symptoms: dizziness, tingling, drowsiness and muscular paralysis. May occasionally be gastrointestinal Gastrointestinal illness due to heavy metal symptoms. Usually because of the con- Intoxication (alcohol-like) due to mush- sumption of filter-feeding bivalve shellfish or rooms. Section 4 Services and organisations information and advice to professionals and 4. Communicable disease control in England de- Health Protection Units pends on joint working between many differ- ent agencies and individuals (Table 4. Officers acting Local government authorities on behalf of a council must ensure that the powers and responsibilities they exercise have Local government in England and Wales is been lawfully delegated to them by the elected based on elected councils, which are ac- members. They advise on hygiene, other infection control measures and travel health and deliver immunisation programmes. Community health services, including Community nurses and other community-based healthcare community-based healthcare workers usually work as members of a primary healthcare team, workers, clinics and community they manage infection problems and require access to infection hospitals and nursing homes control advice. Mental Health Trusts Specialist mental health services, in-patient and out-patient. Occupational Health Services Advise managers and employees about the effect of work on health and of health on work; minimise infectious hazards at work including advising on immunisation. It allows the epidemiology of these in- complaints and provide food hygiene train- fections to be described and will produce hy- ing. The principles of surveillance A good surveillance system consists of the fol- lowing key steps. The aspects of the occurrence and spread of a dis- datathatarecollecteddependonthenatureof ease through the systematic collection, col- the infection. Forfood-borneinfec- The purpose of surveillance tions, food histories and food preferences may berecorded. Forinfectionsthatarespreadfrom Surveillanceallowsindividualcasesofinfec- person to person, the names and addresses of tiontobeidentifiedsothatactioncanbetaken contacts may be requested, and for infections to prevent spread. For some infections where signal an outbreak, which may need further intervention is required, additional data are 272 Services and organisations collected. These cases coccal infection the names of close household can only be detected by serological surveys. Casesthatareseenbyadoctor a need to find out more about the epidemi- may be reported via a primary care reporting ology, an enhanced data set may be collected schemeorstatutorynotificationsystem. Cases or there may be a request for laboratory data that are investigated by laboratory tests may to confirm the diagnosis. An example of this is be detected by a laboratory reporting system, theserologicalconfirmationofclinicalreports and those that are admitted to hospital will be of measles, mumps and rubella using salivary counted by a hospital information system. Datamayalsobe lance system, it is important to ensure that the downloaded from databases used for patient mostappropriatedatasourceisutilised. In database then allows analysis of the data and England and Wales the main routine data col- the production of summary statistics includ- lecting systems are as follows. Thispermitstheepi- Statutory notications of infectious demiology of the infection to be described in disease terms of person, place and time and the de- tection of clusters of outbreaks. Local data can The system for each European country is de- be shared and merged to produce data sets at scribed in the relevant chapter of Section 5. The current list of notifiable infectious dis- Interpretation of the data and summary eases in England and Wales is shown in Table statistics leads to information on trends and 4. Anycliniciansuspectingthesediagnoses risk factors, which are disseminated so that isrequiredtonotifytheproperofficerofthelo- action can be taken. Statutory notifications are an impor- Feedback to local data providers is impor- tantwayofmonitoringtrendsininfectiousdis- tant. Itdemonstratestheusefulnessofthedata ease,suchaswhoopingcough,wherethediag- and creates reliance on it. If the laboratory Sources of surveillance data is unable to carry out the work, then speci- mens are forwarded to a suitable reference lab- A number of data sources are available for oratory. Many results of clinical significance are notified to Surveillance of communicable disease 273 Table 4. This should be covered tronic reporting is in use but reporting by by a written policy. Death certication and registration Trends are difficult to interpret, since the data Mortalitydataoncommunicablediseaseareof are sensitive to changes in testing or report- limitedusesincecommunicablediseasesrarely ing by laboratories. Data ing typing or they may use multiple sources on calls about selected symptoms are collated of data. Hospital data Other sources of data Data are available from hospital information TheMedicalOfficersofSchoolsAssociationre- systems on infectious diseases that result in ports illness in children in approximately 55 admissiontohospital. Thisisusefulinthesurveillanceofin- admission to hospital, although data are often fluenza. Managing infectious disease incidents and outbreaks 275 The British Paediatric Surveillance Unit of A single case of a particular rare or serious the College of Paediatrics and Child Health disease such as diphtheria, rabies, viral haem- co-ordinates surveillance of uncommon pae- orrhagic fever or polio. A reporting card is sent A suspected, anticipated or actual event in- each month to consultant paediatricians in volving exposure to an infectious agent (e. An in- der incident, failure of decontamination pro- vestigator then contacts the paediatrician for cedures). Conditions of infective Actual or potential microbial or chemical originthatareundersurveillanceincludecon- contamination of food or water. The control of infection in childhood, complications of vari- an outbreak of infectious disease depends on cella, invasive fungal infection in low-birth- early detection followed by a rapid structured weight infants and neonatal herpes simplex investigation to uncover the source of infec- virus infection. Incident management may be more effective if an in- cident control room is established. In circum- disease incidents and stances where there are likely to be significant outbreaks numbers of enquiries from members of the publicfor example during a look-back exer- cise following identification of a healthcare An infectious disease incident may be defined worker infected with hepatitis Ba dedicated in one of the following ways: telephone helpline may be established. Most calls arrive in the first few days, so the maximum number of lines should be available at the start of an incident; excess lines can then be closed down Calls can first be screened by an experienced person who then allocates them appropriately- or calls can be taken by a first-line person, who passes on difficult calls Four-hour shifts are generally used, some may be able to do two shifts Asupervisorisneededforeachshifttodealwithbriefingsandadministrationandcoverstaff breaks. These are out- route of transmission to prevent further cases, breaks affecting members of more than one to prevent similar outbreaks in the future, to private residence or residents of an institu- describe new diseases and learn more about tion. They are distinct from family outbreaks, known diseases, to teach and learn epidemi- which affect members of the same private res- ology, to address public concern and to gather idence only. It may result from increased clinical or laboratory detection of cases, changes in re- Detection porting patterns, changes in the size of the at-risk population or false-positive laboratory Anoutbreakwillberecognisedbycasereports, tests.
Moreover order medrol online now arthritis and diet uk, a limited set of interacting secreted signaling factors and a related network of intracellular signaling cascades and transcription factors can clearly drive divergent differentiation from a common cohort of stem cells order medrol with american express arthritis in the knee running. The core pluripotency network arguably emerged early in vertebrate evolution to support two main functions buy discount medrol 16 mg line arthritis in dogs how to tell, to promote stem cell renewal while simultaneously suppressing differentia- tion, and appears to be largely similar from one stem cell compartment to the next. Differ- entiation, on the other hand, is likely to involve a diversity of maturation genes that adapt differentiating cells to specic tissues and organs. It is likely therefore that there is a layer of cellular regulation that adapts the common pluripotency network to cell-, tissue-, and even organism-specic differentiation. Several pieces of evidence indirectly point to an intervening regulatory layer between stem cell renewal and differentiation. Green boxes indicate core transcription factors necessary for osteoblast and adipocyte lineage specic differentiation. Secondly, the biology of stem cells is intimately associated with evolution and speciation. Similar types of stem cells in different organisms produce diverse body plans and exhibit divergent regen- erative capacities. Stem cells in amphibian  and mammalian species [4,5] make use of an over- lapping complement of pluripotency factors, yet amphibian, but not mammalian stem cells have the capacity to regenerate complex tissues like limbs. Finally, not only do stem cells in older organisms exhibit diminished regenerative capacities , but stem cells can exhibit altered patterns of lineage commitment with age; i. The question is why is there such diversity in stem cell differentiation potential from tissue type, speciation, and age? One answer to this question might lie in the existence of a new and relatively poorly understood network of regulatory mechanisms collectively termed, epigenetics. At the level of the organism, epigenetics serves to promote adaptation and is increasingly thought to be a major mechanism for speciation, and at the molecular level, a mechanism to control cellular differentiation and homeostasis. Epigenetic regulatory networks are increasingly being found to be critical facilitators of the successful 508 transformation of stem cells into tissues and organs, but may also serve the aberrant trans- formation of stem cells in cancer. A detailed and comprehensive overview of the eld of epigenetics is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Excellent recent reviews have outlined the history and basic mechanisms underlying epigenetics , and detailed their relevance to tissue and organism development [25,26] and to cancer mechanisms . A variety of cellular mechanisms that regulate nuclear chromatin structure and control gene transcription and translation are collectively classied as epigenetic mechanisms, if these mechanisms result in relatively irreversible changes in the function of cells and tissues. Similarly, post-translational histone modications can also alter the compactness of nucleosomes to regulate gene expression. The methylation of histones, such as di- or trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine-4 (H3K4me2 and H3K4me3), result in increased activation, whereas di- and trimethylation on H3K9 and histone acetylation are associated with repression . The methylation and demethylation of chromatin is an important component of the stem cell differentiation process. For example, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells exhibit de- methylation at Dlx5 and other osteoblast-specic transcription factors during the process of transformation into osteoblasts . The dominant model for transcription at these loci is that it proceeds from the remaining active allele. Frequently, the non-silenced allele exhibits post- translational histone modications like trimethylation of lysine 4 (H3K4me3) that are known to facilitate transcription activation . The human genome is predicted to contain as many as 156 imprinted genes , and many of these do not overlap with the cohort of imprinted genes in the mouse , suggesting the likelihood of shifts in imprinting with mammalian speciation. The net effect is to decrease the gene dosage in tissues and the emergence of this phenomenon with mammalian evolution is thought to be a mechanism for the control of fetal size. Paternal alleles are thought to promote, while maternal alleles are thought to constrain, fetal growth (reviewed in ). The implication of imprinting as an epigenetic phenomenon that regulates stem cells is enormous. Because of their capacity to control tissue growth ,it is likely that imprinted genes play an important role in stem cell maturation . The species variation in gene imprinting suggests that the epigenetic controls over stem cell renewal and maturation are likely to be species-specic. Moreover, gene imprinting may vary as a function of the state of cellular differentiation. These data suggest that the epigenetic programming of stem cells may 509 vary as a function of both species and tissue of origin, and that the replication of tissue- and species-specic epigenetic programs will be critical for the successful therapeutic manipulation of stem cells. Sequencing the human genome has shown unexpectedly that the human genome contains a surprisingly small number of protein-coding genes . Clearly the protein coding gene content of animal chromosomes does not change dramatically with vertebrate and mammalian evolution. These apparently contradictory data suggest that Myc-mediated epigenetic programming is complex, but taken as a whole, prevents cell cycle arrest. Some genes that are moderately methylated during stem cell renewal, become hypomethylated, while others exhibit increased methylation. Collectively, these factors contribute to Myc-mediated epigenetic control over stem cell renewal and maintenance of pluripotency. Myc also directly binds to, and strongly represses, the transcription of Gata6, a transcription factor that promotes endoderm differen- tiation of stem cells. Other members of the pluripotency network are also subject to epigenetic regulatory programs. The human genome contains six pseudogenes for Oct3/4 and ten pseudogenes for Nanog, compared to a relative paucity of psuedogenes for other non-pluripotency-related transcription factors . The Oct4 pseudo- gene family has been recently found to exert complex and mutually interdependent epigenetic regulation of the Oct4 promoter. Imprinted gene loci play an important role in tissue growth in mammals and therefore an analysis of how they control stem cell differentiation is particularly important for the thera- peutic use of stem cells. The Mest/Peg (Paternally-Expressed Gene)-1 locus is a good example of the role of epigenetics in stem cell maturation. Inter- estingly, these regions, particularly at the second CpG island also coincide with a high density of activation acetylation (H3K27Ac) and methylation (H3K4me3 and H3K4Me1) marks on histones, suggesting differential activation of maternal and paternal alleles. We previously discussed evidence, for example, that Wnt signaling directs mesenchymal stem cells towards osteoblast-specic differentiation and inhibits adipocyte differentiation. However, miR335 also acts as a direct negative regulator of Runx2, a factor required for osteogenic differentiation . For example, researchers have reported the loss of X-chromosome inactivation in well-established human embryonic stem cell lines  suggesting that stem cells can experience epigenetic drift. This suggests that the environment can reprogram epigenetic controls over stem cell renewal and maturation. Most epigenetic changes do not lead to alterations in the primary sequence of genes and are potentially reversible.
Mortality rates for heart disease and stroke cheap 16 mg medrol free shipping arthritis yoga classes, the number one and number three causes of death in the United States 16 mg medrol visa arthritis in the left knee, have been decreasing steadily and significantly over the past 20 years buy medrol with american express arthritis pain patch. The agency provides national leadership for a comprehensive, broad-based approach to reduce tobacco use by: Preventing young people from starting to smoke; Eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke; Promoting quitting among young people and adults; and, Identifying and eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. Activities will utilize social media technologies that include web, mobile, and other social networking media that effectively reach youth and young adults (e. Appropriately crafted media campaigns have been shown to be effective in preventing smoking initiation, promoting cessation, and changing social norms. The primary objective of comprehensive tobacco control programs is to reduce the burden of tobacco-related death and disease through evidence-based population-wide interventions; counter- marketing; policies and regulations; and surveillance and evaluation. Rationale and Recent Accomplishments: Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die prematurely from smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, and another 8. Coupled with this enormous health toll is the significant economic burden of tobacco use, which is 20 responsible for more than $96 billion per year in medical expenditures. Quitting smoking by age 30 eliminates nearly all excess risk associated with smoking, and smokers who quit before age 50 cut in half their risk of dying in the next 15 years. The Surgeon General concluded in 2006 that there is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke and that eliminating smoking in all indoor areas is the only way to protect the public from the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke. In October 2009, the Institute of Medicine concluded that even brief secondhand smoke exposure could trigger a heart attack and that smoke-free laws prevent heart attacks and save lives. States that have invested more fully in comprehensive tobacco control programs have seen cigarettes sales drop more than twice as much as in the United States, and smoking prevalence among adults and youth has declined faster as spending for tobacco control increases. Moreover, due to program-related reductions in smoking, lung cancer incidence has been declining four times faster in California than in the rest of the nation. According to the North American Quitline Consortiums 2005 Annual Survey of Quitlines in America, quitlines have an average utilization rate of 0. Quitlines are among the most cost effective clinical preventive services and are a proven method for increasing successful quit attempts. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses --- United States, 2000--2004. A 2009 article in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology estimated that heart attack hospitalizations drop by 17 percent in communities that enact comprehensive smoke-free policies and estimated that if all states were smoke-free, nearly 155,000 heart attacks could be averted annually. As of November 1, 2009, 21 states and the District of Columbia have laws in effect that prohibit smoking in workplaces and public places. A 10 percent increase in the real price of cigarettes is estimated to reduce adult consumption by nearly 4 percent. On April 1, 2009, the Federal cigarette tax was increased from 39 cents per pack to $1. In addition to the Federal increase, 14 states and the District of Columbia have increased their cigarette excise tax as of November 1, 2009. States that have made large investments in comprehensive tobacco control programs have seen cigarette sales drop more than twice as much as in the United States as a whole. National trends in per capita cigarette consumption are strongly correlated with national trends in lung cancer mortality rates and consumption trends are recommended as a primary surveillance indicator for lung cancer control efforts. In 2005, annual per capita cigarette consumption among adults aged 18 and older was 1,716, a more than five percent decrease from 2004. Similarly, the percentage of the nonsmokers aged 4 years and older with self-reported home secondhand smoke exposure declined from 20. Lung, trachea, and bronchus cancers account for 13 percent of all cancer diagnoses and 29 percent of all cancer deaths; smoking is a primary cause of these cancers. Rationale and Recent Accomplishments: Poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and unhealthy weight not only increase the risk of many diseases and health conditions, they also have a major economic impact. In 2008, 21 the cost of obesity in the United States was estimated at $147 billion. Annual Medical Spending Attributable To Obesity: Payer-And Service-Specific Estimates; Health Affairs, 28, no. One such program is Smart Choices, which promotes healthy items in vending machines and concession stands across Georgia parks and recreation facilities. Six sites participated in the initial pilot program, and ten local public health districts have been funded to implement the program in 2009. In 2005, Georgia adopted the Georgia Recreation and Parks Healthy Vending Resolution to provide healthier items for vending machines and concession stands. These efforts have resulted in environmental changes to retail and other store venues that provide consistent messages about fruit and vegetable consumption. This will accelerate further development of evidence-based policy and environmental nutrition, physical activity, and obesity strategies. Community Health funding will be used to support the programs and initiatives described below. This program will fund up to ten of the largest cities through competitive cooperative agreements. The Recovery Act communities provide a platform for testing wide-scale application of a focused set of evidence-based policy, environmental, and systems strategies. Best practices and lessons learned from Recovery Act will serve to inform the large cities funded through this initiative. Large cities have high population density and represent a large proportion of the national population. Consequently, a focused investment in a limited set of large cities is an efficient way to reach large populations. Cities themselves have identified Federal guidance and support as a key to turning the tide in chronic disease. Large cities possess unique regulatory authority and ability to make policy and environmental changes that affect large populations city-wide. Funded big cities will implement evidence-based programs using proven policy, environmental, and systems change strategies to address three public health priorities: tobacco prevention and control; obesity prevention and control (through improved nutrition and physical activity); and chronic disease detection and management. The program will also include the creation of Action Institutes to provide training and technical assistance for teams of community leaders to help them develop community action plans. Program strategies aim to bridge the gaps between the health care system and minority communities; respond to unique social, economic, and cultural circumstances; and change the conditions and risk factors in local communities that have kept racial and ethnic minority groups from improving their health. These Centers of Excellence have expertise in working with specific ethnic groups and help to train new communities and disseminate effective strategies. These communities will establish a solid foundation and be poised to implement evidence-based strategies within their communities. The program mobilizes community leadership and resources to bring change to the places and organizations that touch peoples lives every day at work sites, schools, community centers, and health care settings to stem the growth of chronic disease. Special focus is directed toward populations with disproportionate burden of disease and lack of access to preventive services.
The wiggly lines labeled on one unit of the capsid show the location of structural loops that occur on the capsid surface (see g order medrol 16 mg with mastercard arthritis in dogs loss of appetite. Theblackcircle at the lower right shows the approximate relative size of an antibody-binding region (Fab) buy genuine medrol arthritis back pain relief natural, illustrating the potential coverage of capsid protein loops that may be involved in immune recognition buy medrol overnight delivery rheumatoid arthritis liver. Redrawn from Mateu (1995, with permission from Elsevier Sci- ence) based on original work in Harrison (1989, with permission from Nature, www. Discontin- uous epitopes occur when amino acid residues from widely separated sequence locations come together conformationally to form a binding surface for antibodies. Two antigenic sites of serotypes A, O, and C have discontinuous epitopes that have received widespread attention (Mateu et al. The rst discontinuous site occurs near the capsids threefold axes of symmetry at the vertices of the pentagonal structural units (g. The high specicity of antibodies means that the sequence and conformational dierences between serotypes change the detailed antigenic properties of particular regions. Studies focused on natu- ral selection of particular amino acid residues must account for back- ground dierences of sequence and conformation among test strains. Two problems of interpreting selective pressures arise from an escape map based on natural variants. First, eld isolates do not control the multitude of evolutionary pressures on variation. Lack of variability may result either from lack of antibody pres- sure or from constraining selective pressures such as binding to host receptors. The second problem for interpreting selective pressures from natu- ral isolates concerns lack of control over genetic background. Whether aparticularamino acid site aects antibody anity may depend on conformation-changing variants at other sites. Site-directed mutagenesis controls amino acid replacements in a xed genetic background. One can alter sites that do not vary naturally to test for eects on antibody binding. But this method can only dene changes in antibody binding; it does not show how viral populations actually respond to immune pressure. This al- lows direct control of selective pressure by comparing lines with and without exposure to antibodies. In addition, cultures can be started with genetically monomorphic viruses to control genetic background. The host cells were refreshed from independent stock in each passage and therefore did not coevolve with the virus over the passage history. Controlled studies of laboratory evolution provide some insight into the evolution of this region. Each mutant (except one) escaped antibody neutralization by a single amino acid change. The dierent locations of these muta- tions in the original (C-S8c1) line compared with the serially passaged (C-S8c1p100) line provide the most striking result of this study. Those variants replicated with the same kinetics as the parental viruses of C-S8c1p100, with no loss in tness. The white triangles denote positions that can tolerate certain amino acid replacements without greatly aecting antibody binding. The letters above the sequence summarize the escape mutants of C-S8c1 (original line); letters below the sequence summarize escape mutants of C-S8c1p100 (passaged line). Experimental evolution provides one approach to analyzing those selective forces, as described in the previous section. Integrins are transmembrane glycoproteins composed of two dierent subunits, and. These various studies call attention to the complementary processes of attachment and entry (Haywood 1994). In some cases, viruses may rst attach to host cells based on the kinetics of binding between viral and host attachment sites. Onceviruses bind to host attachment sites, a second-phase kinetic process determines binding between viral and host receptors that initiate viral entry into host cells. The viruses, attracted near the cell surface, may then encounter and bindtotherelativelysparserhost integrin receptors. Viral kinetics may be modulated separately for preliminary attach- ment and secondary binding to the portofentry. Not surpris- ingly, genetic background aects thebindingconsequences of amino acid substitutions and the evolutionary changes that occur in dierent strains. Studies of other pathogens have inferred a two-step process with low-anity receptors serving as the rst site of adsorption (reviewed in Jackson et al. Viral particles may adhere too strongly to cells that cannot be infected, or the rate of clearance may be raised by exposure on tissue surfaces. In addition, reduced virulence may sometimes be favored when associated with enhanced persistence of infection, perhaps by sequestering viruses at low abun- dance in certain tissues. Surface stickiness may therefore inuence sev- eral aspects of pathogen kinetics within the host and the consequences of infection on host morbidity and mortality. Rather, these analyses should be inter- preted as a model for studying how particular amino acid substitutions can profoundly alter kinetics and cellular tropisms. In each case, the benets for increased rates of entry to host cells balance against the costs of reduced spread and faster clearance from certain host compart- ments. Combined studies of experimental evolution in vitro and in vivo provide a useful tool for studying how selective forces shape parasite characters via particular amino acid substitutions. Bycontrast, the second virus had relatively higher anity for 51 compared with 3. Viral success in dierent cell typesorindierent hosts may depend on variations in nonstructural genes that do not mediate binding and entry to host cells. Among the several amino acid substitutions that arose during passage, asinglechange from glutamine to arginine at position 44 of gene 3A provided virulence. These studies show the potential power of experimental evolution in studying evolutionary forces, particularly when combined with analysis of naturally occurring variation. This creates selective pressure for substitutions that escape antibody recognition. Second, naturally occurring variants from eld isolates may be tested against a panel of antibodies. Certain sets of antibodies may bind most isolates, allowing identication of those variants that dier at commonly recognized epitopes. Escape variants gain a tness advantage by avoiding antibody recogni- tion targeted to important epitopes. However, those pathogen epitopes may also play a role in binding to host cells, in release from infected cells, or in some other aspect of the pathogens life cycle. Functional and structural studies of amino acid substitutions provide one method of analysis.
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