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Acid-base analysis: a critique of the Stewart and bicarbonate-centered approaches buy abana canada cholesterol in green eggs. Chapter 9 67 Postoperative medications Postoperative medications 68 Postoperative medication following coronary bypass/valve surgery 70 Preoperative medications 72 68 ChaPter 9 Postoperative medications Postoperative medications Postoperative critical care involves getting the basics right purchase abana once a day cholesterol medication fatigue, attention to detail purchase 60pills abana cholesterol levels calculator, and avoidance of omissions. Most postoperative medications are prescribed according to a standard protocol (see example protocol in table 9. Cardiac surgical patients are commonly on numerous medica- tions some of which must be continued into the postoperative period and others which should be stopped. Antibiotic prophylaxis • Prophylaxis against surgical site infection is routinely continued into the postoperative period. Stress ulcer prophylaxis • Prophylaxis is essential in patients mechanically ventilated for >48 hours. Electrolytes • hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia are common in the postoperative period and put patients at i risk of arrhythmia. Glucose control • hyperglycaemia is common after cardiac surgery and associated with i mortality and complications in patients both with and without diabetes mellitus. Perioperative blood glucose control after cardiac surgery reduces mortality: • Caution: avoid hypoglycaemia. Arrhythmia (atrial fbrillation) prophylaxis • early postoperative administration of β-blockers in patients without contraindications is standard therapy to reduce the incidence and/or clinical sequelae of atrial fbrillation. Prevention of coronary graft spasm • radial artery grafts are particularly prone to spasm therefore vasodilators are commonly used: • e. Subcutaneous apomorphine or topical preparations of rotigotine (Neupro®) are available for patients in whom the oral route is contraindicated. Myasthenia gravis • Careful management of anticholinesterase medication is essential to avoid myasthenic crisis and respiratory failure postoperatively. Drugs for respiratory diseases Inhaled bronchodilators and steroids should be continued in the intubated patient via nebulizer or metered dose inhaler attachment to the ventilator circuit. Corticosteroids Patients taking chronic glucocorticoid therapy require perioperative supple- mentation due to suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Restarting preoperative medications Cardiovascular drugs β-blockers, aCe inhibitors, and statins should be recommenced in patients with ischaemic heart disease (see b Secondary prevention, p. Drugs for psychiatric disorders Can generally be restarted on postoperative day . Most human errors are not the result of poor technical knowledge or ability but are due instead to ‘non-technical’ aspects of performance such as communication. Within a multidisciplinary team and between diferent tiers of a clinical team efective communication can be problematic, with difering commu- nication styles complicated by hierarchical, ethnic, and gender infuences. Within an intensive care environment a single patient’s care may be ‘handed over’ within the multidisciplinary team over 5 times within any single 24-hour period. Missing or incomplete information during admission or subsequent hand- over is a common cause of error and patient harm. During the handover of information distractions or interruptions increase cognitive demands leading to inefciency and an i risk of error. Good situation awareness and efective role and task allocation start with efective communication. Written and verbal communication can work hand in hand to allow such communication and care planning. By taking a short period of time to think about how we all handover information at each stage of the patient’s journey we have the potential to ensure that the patient’s safety is paramount and optimal and timely care is delivered. It consists of: • the mitral valve, forming the inlet to the ventricle • the conical apical portion, containing fne trabeculations • the outfow tract leading to the aortic valve. Myocardial contractility is spiral, producing radial contractility and longitudi- nal shortening. In addition, regional wall-motion abnormalities can be defned and culprit vessels identifed. In addition, identifcation and management of reversible causes including myocardial ischaemia are described. Contractility: pharmacological support Chapter 27 on circulatory support details the pharmacological actions of diferent classes of inotropes together with their indications. Contractility: mechanical support Chapter 27 on circulatory support goes on to describe the indications and use of mechanical and extracorporeal life support. It consists of: • the sinus (infow) below the tricuspid valve • the free wall (providing contractility) which is thin walled • the infundibulum (outfow) leading to the pulmonary valve. Pulmonary artery foatation catheter • the only way to directly measure right heart pressures. Optimize preload • If uncertain, 00mL crystalloid fuid challenge and assess response. Reduce afterload • pulmonary vasodilators such as inhaled nitric oxide, or nebulized iloprost. Contractility: pharmacological support there is no evidence for the best inotrope regimen to use in right heart fail- ure. Key point an exit strategy should always be identifed before embarking on any form of mechanical support. Afterload reduction Pulmonary hypertension • Mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25mmHg at rest or >30mmHg on exercise. Reversible causes Reversible causes should be identifed and treated once initial management is underway. Caution not to overlook posterior changes (St depression in V–3 with dominant R-wave pattern). Pulmonary hypertension—acquired, mitral valve disease • Severe mitral stenosis (valve area <. Supportive measures may be required in the immediate postoperative phase after mitral valve replacement. Pulmonary hypertension—acquired, thromboembolic disease • although rare in the immediate postoperative period in cardiac surgery, pulmonary embolism (pe) may be seen in long-term patients and those admitted for non-surgical care. If there are no features of shock (tachycardia or hypotension) then anticoagulation with heparin is sufcient. If the patient is haemodynamically compromised by pe then the clot should be dispersed. Some may present because of rheumatic heart disease and may have other valve involvement. In a young person there should be a high index of suspicion of a con- genitally abnormal valve, e. Natural history there is a long latent period in the development of aS where patients remain asymptomatic and the risk of sudden death is low. In addition, the hypertrophied myocardium requires a high perfusion pressure to maintain endocardial perfusion and may require vasopressors. Subaortic obstruction Subaortic stenosis may present as a fxed or dynamic obstruction below the level of the aortic valve. Subaortic obstruction occurs in the form with high septal hypertrophy or a sigmoid septum. Aortic regurgitation—chronic Aetiology Chronic aortic regurgitation (aR) most commonly presents in the elderly as a degenerative disease.
The source of infection is usually water and soil purchase generic abana on-line kresser cholesterol ratio, animal products such as meat and dairy products cheap 60pills abana visa cholesterol and uric acid lowering foods. However order abana without a prescription cholesterol risk ratio canada, they may present with fever, muscle cramps and gastrointestinal symptoms. Pregnant women should be advised: • not to eat sof cheese such as feta, queso blanco, queso fresco, brie, camembert, panela, unless made with pasteurized milk; and • to wash fruits and vegetables before eating or cooking. Gram staining (gram-positive motile bacterium) and culture can be used for their diagnosis. The culture will take 1–2 days and a negative culture does not generally rule out infection in the presence of symptoms. Also by sharing towels and bathing sponge • Lesions are usually single small pearly papules with umbilication • Size of lesion is generally 2–5 mm • Usually painless lesions • Most lesions will regress spontaneously within 6–12 months • Biopsy of the lesion will reveal molluscum bodies, which are viewed as eosinophilic inclusions in the epidermis • May need treatment for cosmetic reasons • Cryotherapy is efective. It is the leading cause of maternal death in early pregnancy in the United Kingdom (0. The risk factors for ectopic pregnancy include: • Smoking • Increased maternal age • Assisted reproduction e. The other locations of ectopic pregnancy include cervix, ovary, caesarean section scar and, rarely, intra-abdominal. Late presentation at 12 weeks’ gestation is seen in women with interstitial or cornual ectopic pregnancies. Women can present with abdominal pain or unilateral iliac fossa pain, vaginal bleeding, dizziness or a fainting episode. The typical symptoms of rupture include syncope, abdominal pain, shoulder tip pain, amenorrhoea, vomiting and diarrhoea and collapse (seen only in 20% of the patients). Terefore, one needs to be cautious in making a diagnosis of gastroenteritis rather than ectopic pregnancy when women present to the early pregnancy assessment unit with gastrointestinal symptoms. The clinical signs depend on the location of the ectopic pregnancy, integrity of the tube (rupture or unruptured ectopic) and the amount of blood in the peritoneal cavity. Unruptured ectopic pregnancy Lower abdominal or unilateral iliac fossa tenderness is seen in women with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy. Some women may not have any clinical signs and are diagnosed only on a routine ultrasound scan. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy Abdominal examination will reveal tenderness, guarding and rigidity (signs of peritonism) if there is signifcant amount of blood in the peritoneal cavity. Be gentle with pelvic examination as this may lead to rupture of an unruptured ectopic pregnancy. The Sixth Report on the Confdential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. Saving Mothers’ Lives Report: Reviewing Maternal Deaths to Make Motherhood Safer: 2003–2005. The Seventh Report of the Confdential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing Maternal Deaths to Make Motherhood Safer: 2006–2008. The Eighth Report of the Confdential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. In women with signifcant intraperitoneal bleeding, clinical signs are important to strongly suspect a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. If the patient does not respond to medical therapy or symptoms worsen and suggests of rupturing or ruptured ectopic, she would need surgical treatment. Side effects of methotrexate Side efects include stomatitis, nausea, vomiting, thrombocytopenia, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Terefore, it is important to perform baseline full blood count, renal and liver function profles before administering methotrexate. Women should be clearly instructed that they should avoid getting pregnant for at least 3 months afer the last injection of methotrexate in view of the risk of teratogenicity in the fetus. The approach is usually laparoscopic in experienced hands unless there is haemodynamic instability needing urgent laparotomy or the surgeon is inexperienced. Tere is no diference with subsequent 30 intrauterine pregnancy rates with either salpingostomy or salpingectomy. However, there is a risk of persistent trophoblastic tissue in the fallopian tube with salpingostomy. The other symptoms include acne and hirsutism without clinical signs of virilization. If symptoms or signs of virilization are present, one has to exclude late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia and androgen-producing adrenal adenoma/tumours or ovarian tumours. So these women need long-term follow up and screening (at least yearly) for these conditions. The follicles are generally placed at the periphery of the ovary giving a ‘pearl necklace’ appearance. Macroscopically the ovaries are enlarged and cut section shows an increase in the stroma of the ovary. Microscopically there is theca stromal cell hyperplasia surrounding arrested follicles. It may just be an incidental fnding on the ultrasound scan seen in almost 25% of the women in reproductive age. Also, high serum oestrogen levels (unopposed by progesterone) may increase the risk of developing endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. Terefore, it is important to ensure that these women have at least four periods a year (for endometrial shedding). This provides both protection against endometrial hyperplasia (and endometrial cancer) and contraception. Tese women are also at risk of developing hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular accidents. Some women may have skin changes called acanthosis nigricans (which is thought to be due to insulin resistance). It is a difuse hyperpigmented velvety thickening of the skin generally seen in the axilla, nape of the neck and beneath the breasts. This can be achieved either by regular exercise, weight-losing drugs (Orlistat, Rimonabant and Sibutramine) or bariatric surgery. If menstrual irregularity is the main issue, woman can be advised to take combined oral contraceptive pills (also provides contraception) or can be given medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg once daily for 10 days to elicit withdrawal bleed. The medical treatment for hirsutism includes anti-androgen drug therapy with cyproterone acetate and spironolactone. If the woman has acne and fuid retention problems premenstrually, the use of drosperinone (yasmin) may be considered (also provide contraception). The other drugs used in the treatment of hirsutism include futamide, ketaconazole, fnsateride, and depilatory local creams. Women resistant to clomiphene citrate may need ovarian drilling (surgical treatment). Fetal transmission of the virus can occur in any trimester of pregnancy but the efects of infection (2% risk of congenital fetal varicella syndrome) are mainly seen before 20 weeks’ gestation.
As a result abana 60pills overnight delivery test je cholesterol, both are highly susceptible to injury by cytotoxic drugs cheapest abana definition of cholesterol ester, especially the alkylating agents discount 60 pills abana fast delivery cholesterol levels prawns. Risk is highest during the first trimester, and hence chemotherapy should generally be avoided during this time. However, after 18 weeks of gestation, risk appears to be very low: according to a 2012 report in Lancet, exposure during this time does not cause neurologic, cardiac, or any other fetal abnormalities. Drug effects on the ovaries may result in amenorrhea, menopausal symptoms, and atrophy of the vaginal epithelium. Hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia is defined as an excessive level of uric acid in the blood. Hyperuricemia is especially common after treatment for leukemias and lymphomas (because therapy results in massive cell kill). The major concern with hyperuricemia is injury to the kidneys secondary to deposition of uric acid crystals in renal tubules. In patients with leukemias and lymphomas, in whom hyperuricemia is likely, prophylaxis with allopurinol is the standard of care. Local Injury From Extravasation of Vesicants Certain anticancer drugs, known as vesicants, are highly chemically reactive. These drugs can cause severe local injury if they make direct contact with tissues. Vesicants are administered intravenously, usually into a central line (because rapid dilution in venous blood minimizes the risk for injury). Extreme care must be exercised to prevent extravasation because leakage can produce high local concentrations, resulting in prolonged pain, infection, and loss of mobility. Severe injury can lead to necrosis and sloughing, requiring surgical débridement and skin grafting. Because of the potential for severe tissue damage, vesicants should be administered only by clinicians specially trained to handle them safely. Unique Toxicities In addition to the toxicities discussed previously, which generally apply to the cytotoxic drugs as a group, some agents produce unique toxicities. For example, a number of drugs can cause peripheral sensory neuropathy, manifesting as numbness or tingling in the fingers and toes and around the mouth and throat. Neuropathy may impede activities of daily living, such as buttoning clothing, writing, or just holding things. Anthracyclines such as daunorubicin and doxorubicin can cause serious injury to the heart. Carcinogenesis Along with their other adverse actions, anticancer drugs have one final and ironic toxicity: these drugs, which are used to treat cancer, have caused cancer in some patients. Cancers caused by anticancer drugs may take many years to appear and are hard to treat. Making the Decision to Treat From the preceding discussion of toxicities, it is clear that cytotoxic anticancer drugs can cause great harm. Given the known dangers of these drugs, we must ask why such toxic substances are given to sick people at all. The answer lies with the primary rule of therapeutics, which states that the benefits of treatment must outweigh the risks. That is, although the toxicities of the anticancer drugs can be significant, the potential benefits (cure, prolonged life, palliation) justify the risks. There are patients whose chances of being helped by chemotherapy are remote, whereas the risk for serious toxicity is high. Because the potential benefits for some patients are small and the risks are large, the decision to institute chemotherapy must be made with care. Before a decision to treat can be made, the patient must be given some idea of the benefits the proposed therapy might offer. For treatment to be justified, there should be reason to believe that at least one of these benefits will be forthcoming. If a patient cannot be offered some reasonable hope of cure, prolonged life, or palliation, it would be difficult to justify treatment. The most important factors for predicting the outcome of chemotherapy are (1) the general health of the patient and (2) the responsiveness of the type of cancer the patient has. General health status is assessed by measuring performance status, frequently using the Karnofsky Performance Scale (Table 82. A Karnofsky score of less than 40 indicates the patient is debilitated and not likely to tolerate the additional stress of chemotherapy. Accordingly, patients with a low Karnofsky rating should not receive anticancer drugs—unless their cancer is known to be especially responsive. Nonetheless, we should still try to assess whether treatment is likely to produce cure, palliation, or prolonged life. If a positive outcome is deemed likely, the patient should almost always be treated, even if his or her Karnofsky score is low. In contrast, if a positive outcome is deemed highly unlikely, the patient should be treated only after careful consideration, so as to avoid the discomforts of a course of treatment that has little to offer. An important requirement for deciding in favor of chemotherapy is that the effect of treatment be measurable. For solid tumors, we should be able to measure a decrease in tumor size (or at least inhibition of further growth). For hematologic cancers, we should be able to measure a decrease in neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow. If we have no way to measure the response of a cancer, then we have no way of knowing if treatment has done any good. If we cannot determine that drugs are doing something beneficial, there is little justification for giving them. Patients should be informed as accurately as possible about the potential risks and benefits of the proposed therapy. When the decision to treat is made, it should be the result of collaboration between the patient, family, and physician and should reflect a conviction on the part of the patient that, within his or her set of values, the potential benefits outweigh the inherent risks. Cytotoxic Agents Alkylating Agents The family of alkylating agents consists of nitrogen mustards, nitrosoureas, and other compounds. Shared Properties Mechanism of Action The alkylating agents are highly reactive compounds that can transfer an alkyl group to various cell constituents. Because alkylation reactions can take place at any time during the cell cycle, alkylating agents are considered cell-cycle phase nonspecific. However, most of these drugs are more toxic to dividing cells—especially cells that divide rapidly —than they are to cells in G. Toxicities Alkylating agents are toxic to tissues that have a high growth fraction. Blood dyscrasias—neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia—caused by bone marrow suppression are of greatest concern. Nitrosoureas The nitrosoureas are bifunctional alkylating agents and are active against a broad spectrum of neoplastic diseases. Unlike many anticancer drugs, the nitrosoureas are highly lipophilic and hence can readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Platinum Compounds The platinum-containing anticancer drugs—cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin—are similar to the alkylating agents and are often classified as such.