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It usually results from tubular epithelial cell damage and presents as acute tubular necrosis purchase 120 ml liv 52 with mastercard symptoms for hiv. When using a small change in serum creatinine as the criterion for renal dysfunction (22) one study found that gentamicin (26%) is more nephrotoxic than tobramycin (12%) and that nephrotoxicity usually becomes evident between 6 and 10 days after starting the aminoglycoside buy liv 52 120 ml with mastercard treatment variable. Aminoglycoside-induced acute tubular necrosis is usually non-oliguric and completely reversible buy 60 ml liv 52 free shipping medications list template. However, occasional patients require temporary dialysis and a rare patient requires chronic dialysis. Factors that contribute to aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity include dose, duration of treatment, use of other tubular toxins (26), and elevated trough aminoglycoside levels (25). Even patients with peak and trough levels within recommended ranges can develop nephrotoxicity. Meta-analyses (27,28) and prospective evaluation (29) have demonstrated that once a day dosing of an aminoglycoside in immunocompetent adults with normal renal function is effective treatment for infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (employing bacteriologic cure as an end point) and is less toxic than traditional multiple daily dosing. Vancomycin can also cause renal tubular injury; the larger vancomycin doses currently recommended for treatment of pneumonia and bacteremia are associated with an increased incidence of nephrotoxicity (30). Until recently, amphotericin B was the drug of choice for severe fungal infections due to Candida or Aspergillus. Amphotericin B can affect the renal tubules, renal blood flow, or glomerular function; renal dysfunction is seen in at least 60% to 80% of patients who receive this drug (31). However, renal dysfunction is usually transient, and few patients suffer serious long-term renal sequelae. Rarely, irreversible renal failure develops when the agent is used in high doses for prolonged periods (32). Risk factors for amphotericin B toxicity include abnormal baseline renal function, daily and total drug dose, and concurrent use of other nephrotoxic agents (e. However, some studies have not found that other drugs enhance amphotericin B-induced nephrotoxicity (22). Reversing sodium depletion and optimizing volume status prior to infusing the drug can decrease the risk of amphotericin B-induced nephrotoxicity (31,34). Liposomal preparations of amphotericin B are associated with a lower risk of nephro- toxicity compared with the parent compound. Methicillin was the first antibiotic shown to be associated with interstitial nephritis (35); nephritis can also be caused by numerous other b-lactams (36), usually following prolonged and/or high-dose therapy. Historically, renal failure was believed to be acute in onset and associated with fever, chills, rash, and arthralgias. However, the presentation of antibiotic-induced interstitial nephritis can be variable, and it should be suspected in any patient on a potentially offending agent who develops acute renal dysfunction. Urinary eosinophilia supports the diagnosis, but is present in less than half of the patients. Discontinuation of the offending agent generally reverses the process and permanent sequelae are unusual. Sulfonamides, acyclovir, and ciprofloxacin can crystallize in the renal tubules causing acute renal failure (37). Sulfonamides can also block tubular secretion of creatinine; this causes the serum creatinine to rise but glomerular filtration rate is unchanged. Patients on rifampin often develop orange-colored urine of no clinical consequence. Chloramphenicol (infrequently used in the United States) frequently causes a reversible anemia that is more common if circulating drug concentrations exceed the recommended range. In approximately 1 of every 25,000 recipients, chloramphe- nicol causes an idiosyncratic irreversible aplastic anemia (41). Patients who are glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient are predisposed to sulfonamide- and dapsone-induced hemolytic anemia. Leukopenia Antibiotic-induced leukopenia and/or agranulocytosis are generally reversible. Anti-infectives that can cause neutropenia or agranulocytosis include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (42,43), most b-lactams (44,45), vancomycin, macrolides, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, flucytosine, and amphotericin B. Severe neutropenia develops in 5% to 15% of recipients of b-lactams (45) and is associated-with duration of therapy >10 days, high doses of medication, and severe hepatic dysfunction (46,47). Likelihood of neutropenia is <1% when shorter courses of b-lactams are used in patients with normal liver function (47). Only rare patients develop infection as a result of this decrease in functioning leukocytes. Vancomycin-induced neutropenia is uncommon and generally only occurs after over two weeks of intravenous treatment (49). The etiology appears to be peripheral destruction or sequestration of circulating myelocytes. Prompt reversal of the neutropenia generally occurs after vancomycin is discontinued. Thrombocytopenia Antibiotic-related thrombocytopenia may result from either immune-mediated peripheral destruction of platelets or a decrease in the number of megakaryocytes (49). The oxazolidinone linezolid is the antimicrobial most likely to cause platelet destruction (38–40). In one study, linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia occurred in 2% of patients receiving less than or equal to two weeks of therapy, 5% of those receiving two to four weeks of therapy, and 7% of those receiving more than four weeks of drug (39). Severe linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia (and anemia) is significantly more common in patients with end-stage renal disease (51). Vancomycin can stimulate the production of platelet-reactive antibodies that can cause thrombocytopenia and severe bleeding (51). Sulfonamides, rifampin, and rarely b-lactams (including penicillin, ampicillin, methicillin, cefazolin, and cefoxitin) have also been reported to induce platelet destruction (45,52). Chloramphenicol-induced thrombocytopenia is usually dose-related and, if not associated with aplastic anemia, is reversible following discontinuation of the drug. Coagulation Malnutrition, renal failure, hepatic failure, malignancy, and medications can all predispose critically ill patients to bleeding. Although many studies have found an association between antibiotics and clinical bleeding (53), in-depth, statistically validated investigations may be necessary to establish causation in complex patients with multiple underlying diseases (54). Dysfunctional platelet aggregation, an important mechanism by which selected antibiotics may cause bleeding, is mostly noted with penicillins. Among penicillins, it is most likely with penicillin G and advanced-generation penicillins (55). The problem is dose- related, may be exacerbated by renal failure, and is additive to other factors seen in critically ill patients that could, in their own right, be associated with dysfunctional platelet aggregation (55,56). Most commonly, the reason for dysfunctional platelet aggregation is that carboxyl groups on the acyl side chain block binding sites located on the platelet surface resulting in the inability of platelet agonists such as adenosine diphosphate to affect aggregation (55). All of these products contain an N-methylthiotetrazole side chain that can interfere with hepatic prothrombin synthesis (59). Sulfonamides can displace warfarin from its binding site on albumin and thereby enhance its bioavailability. Virtually any antimicrobial agent may cause a rash, but this problem occurs most commonly with b-lactams, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and vancomycin (60).
Hepatocellular carcinoma: current trends in worldwide epidemiology buy liv 52 with amex medications prolonged qt, risk factors purchase 200 ml liv 52 symptoms magnesium deficiency, diagnosis and therapeutics purchase liv 52 with amex treatment centers for depression. Gender-associated differences in lung cancer: clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in women. The medical management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: integrating new guidelines and recommendations. Clinicopathological prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence in vulvar cancer. Diagnosing metabolic acidosis in the critically ill: bridging the anion gap, Stewart, and base excess methods. Advances in the pathogenesis of Goodpasture’s disease: from epitopes to autoantibodies to effector T cells. Economic evaluation of early administration of prednisolone and/or acyclovir for the treatment of Bell’s palsy. Potential outcome factors in subacute combined degeneration: review of obser- vational studies. Electrodiagnostic and clinical aspects of Guillain-Barrésyndrome:an analysis of 142 cases. Primary intracerebral hemorrhage: update on epidemi- ology, pathophysiology, and treatment strategies. The search for cerebral bio- markers of Huntington’s disease: a review of genetic models of age at onset prediction. Clinical and demographic predictors of long-term disability in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. Initial clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease: features and pathophysiological mechanisms. K+-dependent paradoxical mem- brane depolarization and Na+ overload, major and reversible contributors to weakness by ion channel leaks. Interventions for the treatment of metastatic extradural spinal cord compression in adults. Long-term outcomes of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for classic trigeminal neuralgia: implications of treatment and critical review of the literature. Evidence-based recommendations for the assessment and management of sleep disorders in older persons. At-risk and heavy episodic drinking, motivation to change, and the development of alcohol dependence among men. Overview of generalized anxiety disorder: epidemiology, presen- tation, and course. Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: a patient-level meta-analysis. A double-blind, randomized, parallel group study to compare the efﬁcacy, safety and tolera- bility of slow-release oral morphine versus methadone in opioid-dependent in-patients willing to undergo detoxiﬁcation. Anxious, fearful (“worried”): Avoidant, dependent, obsessive- compulsive ■ Essentials of Diagnosis • History dating from childhood or adolescence of recurrent mal- adaptive behavior • Minimal introspective ability • Major recurrent difﬁculties with interpersonal relationships • Enduring pattern of behavior stable over time, deviating markedly from cultural expectations • Increased risk of substance abuse ■ Differential Diagnosis • Anxiety, major depressive, bipolar, or psychotic disorders • Dissociative disorders • Substance use or withdrawal • Personality change due to medical illness (eg, central nervous system neoplasm, stroke) ■ Treatment • Maintenance of a highly structured environment and clear, con- sistent interactions with the patient • Individual or group therapy (eg, cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal) • Antipsychotic medications may be required transiently in times 14 of stress or decompensation • Serotonergic medications if depression or anxiety is prominent • Serotonergic medications or mood stabilizers if emotional labil- ity is prominent ■ Pearl Just as no pearl captures the essence of this problem, no treatment is consistently valuable or effective. A unifying perspective on per- sonality pathology across the life span: developmental considerations for the ﬁfth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Management of patients presenting with acute psychotic episodes of schizo- phrenia. Somatoform disorders Symptom Production Unconscious Conscious Unconscious Somatoform disorders Factitious disorders Motivation Conscious Not applicable Malingering Reference Lieb R, Meinlschmidt G, Araya R. Epidemiology of the association between somatoform disorders and anxiety and depressive disorders: an update. Delayed post- traumatic stress disorder: systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regres- sion analysis of prospective studies. Actinic keratoses: natural history and risk of malignant transformation in the Veterans Affairs Topical Tretinoin Chemoprevention Trial. Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemi- ology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and management. Hepatitis C virus and lichen planus: a reciprocal association determined by a meta-analysis. A prospective randomized trial comparing the efﬁcacy and adverse effects of four recognized treatments of molluscum contagiosum in children. Pityriasis rosea: an update with a critical appraisal of its possible herpes viral etiology. Bleeding indicates ovaries are producing estrogen, uterus and outﬂow tract are intact. Dysmenorrhea in adolescents and young adults: from pathophysiology to pharmacological treatments and management strategies. Abnormalities can include a ﬁxed retroverted uterus, tender or nodular uterosacral ligaments, or an adnexal mass. Laparoscopic ablation of lesions also results in temporary improvement in fertility rates. However, estrogen therapy has been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer in random- ized controlled trials and so should be reserved for those with severe symptoms and after a thorough discussion. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot ﬂashes: systematic review and meta-analysis. At term, mild cases should have labor induced • Antihypertensives if blood pressure > 180/110 mm Hg • Magnesium sulfate can be given to women to prevent development of seizures and to prevent recurrent seizures in those with eclampsia. The care of patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm: the Society for Vascular Surgery practice guidelines. Nonsurgical treatment of appendiceal abscess or phlegmon: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Proper evaluation and management of acute embolic versus thrombotic limb ischemia. Zenker’s diverticula: pathophysiology, clin- ical presentation, and ﬂexible endoscopic management. Currently recommended treatments of childhood constipation are not evidence based: a systematic lit- erature review on the effect of laxative treatment and dietary measures. The short- and long-term effects of simple behav- ioral interventions for nocturnal enuresis in young children: a randomized con- trolled trial. Reference Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management, Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures American Academy of Pediatrics. Febrile seizures: clin- ical practice guideline for the long-term management of the child with simple febrile seizures. Early prednisone therapy in Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. New insights in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis—from pathophysiology to treatment. Recovery after open versus laparoscopic pyloromyotomy for pyloric stenosis: a double-blind multicentre randomised controlled trial. Molecular biology and clinical associations of Roseoloviruses human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7.
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A nerve can be avulsed by appears in patients who have received one copy of a an injury cheapest generic liv 52 uk medicine woman cast, as can part of a bone discount liv 52 uk medications identification. For example cheap liv 52 online master card treatment plan goals, sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis are axis The second cervical vertebra. Ayurveda provides an integrated avascular necrosis A condition in which poor approach to preventing and treating illness through blood supply to an area of bone leads to bone death. Also known as aseptic necrosis Ayurvedic theory states that all disease begins with and osteonecrosis. Lifestyle intervention is a major avian influenza A highly contagious viral disease ayurvedic preventive and therapeutic approach. All azotemia A higher-than-normal blood level of urea types of birds are susceptible to the virus, but out- or other nitrogen-containing compounds. Azotemia is usually caused by the birds which can carry the virus, but show no signs of inability of the kidneys to excrete these compounds. See malfor- antiviral drug is prescribed, usually in combination mation, arteriovenous. Bb backbone The spine, a flexible row of bones stretching from the base of the skull to the tailbone. See also important role in producing antibodies for the blood culture; septicemia. B cells are lymphocytes that mature in the bone marrow (as opposed to T cells, lym- bacteria Single-celled microorganisms that can phocytes that mature in the thymus). Many B cells exist either as independent (free-living) organisms go on to become plasma cells and produce anti- or as parasites (dependent on another organism for bodies (immunoglobulins); some B cells mature life). See also memory B cell; include Acidophilus, a normal inhabitant of yogurt; plasma cell. Gonococcus which causes gonorrhea; Clostridium welchii, the most common cause of gangrene; E. Babinski reflex A reflex used to determine ade- bacteria, flesh-eating See necrotizing fasci- quacy of the higher (central) nervous system. Babinski reflex is obtained by stimulating the out- side of the sole of the foot, causing extension of the bacterial Of or pertaining to bacteria, as in a big toe while fanning the other toes. Most newborn babies and bacterial vaginosis A vaginal condition charac- young infants are not neurologically mature, and terized by an abnormal vaginal discharge due to an they therefore show a Babinski reflex. A than the usual population of vaginal bacteria, called Babinski reflex that is present on one side but not lactobacilli. Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis are the other is also abnormal, and it can indicate vaginal discharge and sometimes a fishy odor. Also known as microscopic sign of bacterial vaginosis is an plantar response, big toe sign, and Babinski phe- unusual vaginal cell called a clue cell. Therefore, screen- bacillus A large family of bacteria that are rod- ing and treatment for bacterial vaginosis during like in shape. Bacteriophages have been very the vertebrae; ligaments around the spine and discs; helpful in the study of bacterial and molecular spinal inflammation; spinal cord and nerves; mus- genetics. It is used in Baker cyst A swelling in the space behind the the treatment of bleeding veins in the esophagus knee (the popliteal space) that is composed of a (esophageal varices) and stomach. Also known as membrane-lined sac filled with synovial fluid that esophagogastric tamponade. Inflammation of the foreskin is which resemble bar codes, each human chromo- called posthitis. In the uncircumcised male, balani- some is distinctive and can be identified without tis and posthitis generally occur together as bal- ambiguity. Banding also permits the detection of anoposthitis: inflammation of both the glans and chromosome deletions (lost segments), duplications foreskin. With circi- ity in the brain and spinal cord (central nervous sys- nate balanitis, the skin around the shaft and tip of the tem), including many sleeping pills, sedatives, penis can become inflamed and scaly. See also balanitis; addictive, carry a high risk of overdose, and should keratodermia blennorrhagicum; Reiter syndrome. An uncircumcised boy should bariatric surgery Surgery on the stomach be taught to clean his penis with care to prevent and/or intestines to help a person with extreme obe- infection and inflammation of the foreskin and the sity lose weight. Full retraction of the foreskin may between 35 and 40 who have health problems like not be possible until after age 3. There are many types of bald- bariatrician A physician who specializes in ness, each with a different cause. See alopecia; alopecia areata; behavior modification, lifestyle changes, and, when alopecia capitis totalis; alopecia, traumatic; indicated, the prescription of appetite suppressants alopecia universalis. Bariatrics also includes research into overweight, as well as its ball-and-socket joint A joint in which the causes, prevention, and treatment. The barium outlines the colon on the X-ray enlarge a narrowing in a coronary artery. Trench sulfate, which produces a visible image on X-ray fever was first recognized in the trenches of World film. Barium solution outlines organs of the body so War I, and it now occurs among homeless people, they can be seen as images on X-ray film. Also basal cell A small, round cell found in the lower known as upper gastrointestinal series. Basal cell carcinoma often occurs on Barr body A microscopic feature of female cells the face and neck, where the skin is exposed to sun- that is due to the presence of two X chromosomes, light. These tumors are locally invasive and tend to one of which is inactive and crumples up. There is a small nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) that are but definite increased risk of cancer of the esopha- responsible for involuntary movements such as gus (adenocarcinoma) in people with Barrett tremors, athetosis, and chorea. The diagnosis of Barrett esophagus is are abnormal in a number of important neurologic made on seeing (through endoscopy) a pink conditions, including Parkinson’s disease and esophageal lining (mucosa) that extends a short Huntington’s disease. The basal meta- bolic rate can offer clues about underlying health barrier method A birth control method that problems. For example, a person with an overly employs a barrier which prevents sperm from active thyroid has an elevated basal metabolic rate. Condoms and diaphragms are examples of a barrier basal temperature 1 Usually, a person’s tem- method. This meas- nearby glands, called the lesser vestibular glands, ure is now superceded by modern thyroid function the Bartholin glands act to aid in sexual intercourse. Transmission tary to one another (A and T, or G and C) and join occurs when infected louse feces are rubbed into http://www. It may be caused by incomplete development of bladder control, a basement membrane A thin membrane that is sleep or arousal disorder, bladder or kidney dis- composed of a single layer of cells. About 20 percent of 5- with coarse, bluish-black granules of uniform size year-olds wet the bed at least once a month; sur- within the cytoplasm. A bee sting can trigger an allergic reaction, including life-threatening anaphy- battered child syndrome A condition in which lactic shock. Avoidance and prompt treatment are a person has skeletal fractures, especially multiple essential for those who are allergic to bee stings.
A number of assays have been developed to assess toxicity buy 100 ml liv 52 mastercard treatment xyy, carcinogenicity discount liv 52 100 ml otc medications used to treat anxiety, and other genetic responses that arise when living cells are exposed to various chemical compounds buy liv 52 200 ml visa medications that cause constipation. Two important categories of molecular toxicology are: toxicogenomics (use of genomic technolo- gies for the study of toxicology) and toxicoproteomics (see Chap. The object of these studies is to detect suitable drug candidates at an early stage of the discovery process and to reduce the number of failures in later stages of drug development. Toxicogenomics Toxicogenomics is the application of genomic technology to toxicology to study how the entire genome is involved in biological responses of organisms exposed to environmental toxicants/stressors. Researchers use toxicogenomic data to determine how human genes respond and interact with each other during different states of health, disease and challenges from toxicants. Technologies to measure and compare gene expression levels are being increasingly applied to in vitro and in vivo drug toxicology and safety assessment. Use of microarray technologies for toxicogenomics will be described later in this chapter. Universal Free E-Book Store Role of Pharmacogenetics in Pharmaceutical Industry 131 Increasingly, genetic polymorphisms of transporter and receptor systems are also recognized as causing interindividual variation in drug response and drug toxicity. However, pharmacogenetic and toxicogenetic factors rarely act alone; they produce a phenotype in concert with other variant genes and with environmental factors. Genomics is providing the information and technology to analyze these complex situations to obtain individual genotypic and gene expression information to assess the risk of toxicity. Biomarkers of Drug Toxicity This topic is discussed in detail in a special report on biomarkers (Jain 2015). Clinical chemistry endpoints for routine animal toxicity testing and clinical trial safety monitoring have been used for over 25 years. Drug-induced damage to the liver is the most common type of toxicity that results in withdrawn of a drug from clinical trials or from further marketing. Similarly, cardiotoxicity is a frequent occurrence in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. However, the currently available biomarkers for these common types of drug-induced toxicities have lim- ited sensitivity or predictive value. The proteomic tools available today are enabling us to tap into the wealth of genome sequence information to discover and carefully investigate associations of thousands of proteins with drug-induced toxicities. Methods for earlier, more accurate prediction and detection of toxicity can save lives by increasing the window for successful medical treatment, while identifying the best treatment methods for each patient. Drug-Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity Mitochondria are recognized as the producers of the majority of energy cells need for their normal activity. Because drugs can produce toxic effects through damaging mitochondrial bioenergetics, use of the organelle can be an effective and reliable bio-sensor to predict drug safety. Classic methods used to test the toxicity of a wide range of compounds on isolated mitochondrial fractions were later replaced by novel high-throughput methods to investigate the safety of a very large number of new molecules. The assessment of “mitochondrial safety” for new discovered mol- ecules is of interest for pharmaceutical companies, which can now select com- pounds lacking mitochondrial toxicity for further trials, thus avoiding the possibility of discontinuation of clinical trials later on due to mitochondrial toxicity (Pereira et al. Many drugs used to treat these diseases can cause toxic side effects that are often due to inhibition of mitochondrial function. MitoSciences’ MitoTox line of assays can identify drug toxicity before symptoms start to appear. Gene Expression Studies Gene expression is used widely to assess the response of cells to various substances. Two technologies will be described to illustrate the use in molecular toxicology studies. Transcript proﬁling technology has been used to pre- dict adverse toxicity for novel or untested compounds. Such arrays allow comprehensive coverage of genes associated with entire pathways (such as oxidative stress, signal transduction, stress response, epithelial biology) and enable simultaneous measurement of more several thousand gene expression events. Advantages of this format are the lower amount of sample needed and much easier handling. Cytotoxicity assays were among the ﬁrst in vitro bioassay methods used to predict toxicity of drugs to various tissues. Xenometrix offers a broad range of cyto- toxicity assays for the in vitro evaluation of cells in response to pharmaceutical or chemical compounds. They are based on well established, sensitive and reliable endpoints of cytotoxicity and growth inhibition and are adapted for high throughput in microtiter plates. Pharmacogenetics in Clinical Trials Currently, the most signiﬁcant polymorphisms in causing genetic differences in phase I drug metabolism are known and therapeutic failures or adverse drug reac- tions caused by polymorphic genes can be predicted for several drugs. Further investigations need to be done on the consequences of each pharmacogenetic phe- nomenon. Pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic changes my determine drug selec- tion or dose adjustment. Application of beneﬁt of this approach in needs to be veriﬁed in prospective clinical trials using the parameters of Universal Free E-Book Store Role of Pharmacogenetics in Pharmaceutical Industry 133 reduction in adverse drug reactions, improved outcome and cost-effectiveness. Candidate Gene Approach This approach involves generation of speciﬁc hypoth- eses about genes that cause variations in drug responses, which are then tested in responders and non-responders. Candidate drugs that are selectively metabolized by polymorphic enzymes can be dropped early in drug screening. Based on the results of clinical trials, pharmacogenetic genotyping can be introduced into routine clinical practice. This provides signiﬁcant opportunities to enhance current drug surveillance systems by collecting data that would enable rare serious adverse events to be predicted in subsequent patients before the medicine is prescribed. An important challenge in deﬁning pharmacogenetic traits is the need for well- characterized patients who have been uniformly treated and systematically evalu- ated to make it possible to quantitate drug response objectively. Because of marked population heterogeneity, a speciﬁc genotype may be important in deter- mining the effects of a medication for one population or disease but not for another; therefore, pharmacogenomic relations must be validated for each therapeutic indi- cation and in different racial and ethnic groups. Between 3 % and 5 % of the patients are hypersensitive to abacavir and have risk of various reactions including anaphylactic shock. The company is aiming to design a test, which would help the physicians to decide which patients can receive it safely. A retrospective case-control study is being conducted in two phases all subjects identiﬁed from GlaxoSmithKline studies. This will enable detection of a difference in frequency of 15–20 % with 80 % power. Genotype-Based Drug Dose Adjustment Genotype-based drug dose adjustment information can be useful when the drug is introduced into clinical practice and would enable the dose adjustment for individu- alized therapy. Genetically determined interpatient variability or variations in Universal Free E-Book Store Clinical Implications of Pharmacogenetics 135 Table 4. The clinical signiﬁcance of genetic polymorphisms and other genetic factors may be related to substrate, metabolite, or the major elimination pathway. Genetic polymorphism has been linked to three classes of phenotypes based on the extent of drug metabolism. Considering the relative abundance of this enzyme and the signiﬁcant number of pharmaceutical substrates, clinical signiﬁ- cance is likely to be signiﬁcant. Functional information on the variant is essential for justifying its clinical use. Discovery of new genetic variants is outstripping the generation of knowledge on the biological meanings of existing variants.